Dear Carrie: I just retired and am trying to figure out how to maximize all of my resources -- Social Security, a small pension and my investments. Given RMDs, taxes, etc., it feels overwhelming! Can you help? -- A Reader
Dear Reader: This is a great question for every retiree. After decades of receiving a regular paycheck, suddenly, you're faced with deciding the best way to pull money from your accounts. On top of that, you need to make decisions about Social Security and possibly a pension or annuity.
Don't get me wrong. Retirement can be a wonderful time to enjoy the freedom you've worked so many years to achieve. But as you make the transition from being a saver to a spender, chances are you'll have to manage your financial life even more carefully than in the past.
*Assess All Your Resources
After decades of working and saving, it's pretty common to have more than just one investment account. Are you including everything? Contact your old employers if you're not sure. If they're no longer in business or you have difficulty contacting them, try the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or the Missing Money website. Consider consolidating accounts to help simplify managing your investments.
Also think about how your home may fit into the picture. Are downsizing, renting or a reverse mortgage potential options? How about part-time work or consulting? Do you have a hobby you can turn into a money-making enterprise?
*Shore up Your Cash Reserves
Make sure you have enough cash or cash equivalents (savings accounts, money market accounts or short-term CDs) to last at least one year. These days, cash may not earn much, but it's important to have enough for emergencies. To avoid having to sell investments in a prolonged bear market, consider keeping one to four years' worth of portfolio withdrawals in more liquid investments.
*Consider Predictable Sources of Income
Start by estimating how much you believe you'll receive from Social Security and any pensions. It's crucial to make smart decisions when claiming Social Security, as these benefits represent about one-third of the income for the average retiree.
If you don't have a traditional pension plan, are unsure about having enough money and would like to have more guaranteed income to cover your essential expenses, you may want to look into lifetime income options through an annuity. Annuities aren't for everyone, but they're uniquely designed to help accumulate money on a tax-sheltered basis, provide guaranteed lifetime income or both.
In its simplest form, an annuity is a contract between you and an insurance company. You pay for a promise or certain guarantees, such as the ability to receive income guaranteed for life. You can often check out how much income certain annuities might generate with calculators.
A few words of caution: Pay close attention to fees, commissions and surrender charges. An investment professional who understands your situation and works in your best interest can help you examine your options.
*Try a Total Return Approach
Living off interest and dividends without touching growth or the original investment may be an option for a few retirees, but not for most people. An alternative is a total return approach in which your withdrawal consists of all sources (interest, dividends and growth) and may or may not involve touching the original investment to make up what you need. This can provide you with more flexibility as well as create more income. You can use the 4% rule as a starting point on how much to withdraw in retirement.
*Don't Forget Taxes and RMDs
Strategically withdrawing from traditional, Roth and taxable accounts to lower capital gains taxes and keep your tax bracket low can help you pay less in taxes and stretch out your savings. Roth accounts, for example, can provide you with qualified tax-free withdrawals in retirement.
If you turned 70 1/2 before 2020, you may be subject to required minimum distributions (RMDs) from certain retirement accounts like traditional IRAs and 401(k)s under IRS rules. For 2020 and after, you may be subject to RMDs beginning at age 72. Failure to take mandatory withdrawals can be costly: a 50% penalty on top of income taxes!
You'll also want to ensure you have adequate tax withholding from retirement accounts. You can do this by making estimated payments or asking the firms you work with to withhold amounts. Not withholding enough could result in IRS penalties. Withholding too much means you're making an interest-free loan to the government.
*New Help for a New Era
If this all sounds like a bit much to handle, don't worry. New apps and services can guide you. And this may be an ideal time to seek out professional guidance.
One final thought. As you navigate your retirement, your financial needs will likely evolve along with your priorities. So stay involved, flexible and willing to make adjustments when necessary. This is your time to take in all that life has to offer. After decades of hard work, you deserve nothing less.
Carrie Schwab-Pomerantz, Carrie Schwab-Pomerantz's column, "Ask Carrie," can be found at www.creators.com.
DIST BY CREATORS SYNDICATE, INC. (#1220-04G1)