Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams Creators Syndicate is an international syndication company that represents cartoonists and columnists of the highest caliber. en Fri, 19 Oct 2018 08:39:49 -0700 https://www.creators.com/ http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://cdn.creators.com/features/walter-e-williams-thumb.jpg https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams d5857f865e21e70a633ff8c03c161edc The Electoral College Debate for 10/17/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/the-electoral-college-debate Wed, 17 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Democratic socialist Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, seeking to represent New York's 14th Congressional District, has called for the abolition of the Electoral College. Her argument came on the heels of the Senate's confirming Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. She was lamenting the fact that Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Samuel Alito, nominated by George W. Bush, and Justices Neil Gorsuch and Kavanaugh, nominated by Donald Trump, were court appointments made by presidents who lost the popular vote but won the Electoral College vote.</p> <p>Hillary Clinton has long been a critic of the Electoral College. Just recently, she wrote in The Atlantic, "You won't be surprised to hear that I passionately believe it's time to abolish the Electoral College."<p>Updated: Wed Oct 17, 2018</p> 4b185cdccc3581472829faf16c81bb84 Real Economics for 10/10/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/real-economics Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>A widely anticipated textbook, "Universal Economics," has just been published by Liberty Fund. Its authors are two noted UCLA economists, the late Armen A. Alchian and William R. Allen. Editor Jerry L. Jordan was their student and later became a member of President Ronald Reagan's Council of Economic Advisers, as well as the president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Professor Alchian was probably the greatest microeconomic theorist of the 20th century, while Professor Allen's genius was in the area of international trade and the history of economic thought. Both were tenacious mentors of mine during my student days at UCLA in the mid-1960s and early '70s.</p> <p>"Universal Economics'" 680 pages, not including its glossary and index, reflect a friendly chat I had with Professor Alchian during one of the UCLA economics department's weekly faculty/graduate student coffee hour, in which he said, "Williams, the true test of whether someone understands his subject is whether he can explain it to someone who doesn't know a darn thing about it." That's precisely what "Universal Economics" does &#8212; explain economics in a way that anyone can understand. There's no economic jargon, just a tiny bit of simple mathematics and a few graphs.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 10, 2018</p> 05a8d6261761f9554fd0a4409d06b65a Racial Disparities in School Discipline for 10/03/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/racial-disparities-in-school-discipline Wed, 03 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>President Barack Obama's first education secretary, Arne Duncan, gave a speech on the 45th anniversary of "Bloody Sunday" at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, where, in 1965, state troopers beat and tear-gassed hundreds of peaceful civil rights marchers who were demanding voting rights. Later that year, as a result of widespread support across the nation, the U.S. Congress passed the Voting Rights Act. Secretary Duncan titled his speech "Crossing the Next Bridge." Duncan told the crowd that black students "are more than three times as likely to be expelled as their white peers," adding that Martin Luther King would be "dismayed."</p> <p>Gail Heriot, a law professor at the University of San Diego and a member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and her special assistant and counselor, Alison Somin, have written an important article in the Texas Review of Law & Politics, titled "The Department of Education's Obama-Era Initiative on Racial Disparities in School Discipline" (Spring 2018). The article is about the departments of Education and Justice's "disparate impact" vision, wherein they see racial discrimination as the factor that explains why black male students face suspension and expulsion more often than other students.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 03, 2018</p> e634891d81d849f88fa7aa8e0e3eeeb1 University Corruption for 09/26/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/university-corruption Wed, 26 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>I'm thankful that increasing attention is being paid to the dire state of higher education in our country. Heather Mac Donald, a fellow at the Manhattan Institute, has just published "The Diversity Delusion." Its subtitle captures much of the book's content: "How Race and Gender Pandering Corrupt the University and Undermine Our Culture." Part of the gender pandering at our universities is seen in the effort to satisfy the diversity-obsessed National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, each of which gives millions of dollars of grant money to universities. If universities don't make an effort to diversify their science, technology, engineering and math (known as STEM) programs, they risk losing millions in grant money.</p> <p>A UCLA scientist says, "All across the country the big question now in STEM is: how can we promote more women and minorities by 'changing' (i.e., lowering) the requirements we had previously set for graduate level study?" Mac Donald says, "Mathematical problem-solving is being deemphasized in favor of more qualitative group projects; the pace of undergraduate physics education is being slowed down so that no one gets left behind."<p>Updated: Wed Sep 26, 2018</p> 631d2c219281af08be98277c10651ca4 Reasoning About Race for 09/19/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/reasoning-about-race Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>So much of our reasoning about race is both emotional and faulty. In ordinary, as well as professional, conversation, we use terms such as discrimination, prejudice, racial preferences and racism interchangeably, as if they referred to the same behavior. We can avoid many pitfalls of misguided thinking about race by establishing operational definitions so as to not confuse one behavior with another.</p> <p>Discrimination can be operationally defined as an act of choice. Our entire lives are spent choosing to do or not to do thousands of activities. Choosing requires non-choosing. When you chose to read this column, you discriminated against other possible uses of your time. When you chose a spouse, you discriminated against other people. When I chose Mrs. Williams, I systematically discriminated against other women. Much of it was racial. Namely, I discriminated against white women, Asian women, fat women and women with criminal backgrounds. In a word, I didn't offer every woman an equal opportunity, and they didn't offer me an equal opportunity.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 19, 2018</p> e464da766ee6b687e0e9fe9e6f7c2276 It's Our Constitution -- Not Kavanaugh for 09/12/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/its-our-constitution-not-kavanaugh Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>One of the best statements of how the Framers saw the role of the federal government is found in Federalist Paper 45, written by James Madison, who is known as the "Father of the Constitution": "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce. ... The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people." Today's reality is the polar opposite of that vision. The powers of the federal government are numerous and indefinite, and those of state governments are few and defined.</p> <p>If confirmed, Brett Kavanaugh will bring to the U.S. Supreme Court a vision closer to that of the Framers than the vision of those who believe that the Constitution is a "living document." Those Americans rallying against Kavanaugh's confirmation are really against the U.S. Constitution rather than the man &#8212; Judge Kavanaugh &#8212; whom I believe would take seriously his oath of office to uphold and defend the Constitution.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 12, 2018</p> e2d052ef28495e232ead12f88e2580d7 South Africa Question for 09/05/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/south-africa-question Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>South Africa has been thrown into the news because of President Donald Trump's recent tweet that he instructed his secretary of state to "closely study" alleged land seizures from white farmers in South Africa.</p> <p>Earlier this year, a land confiscation motion was brought by radical Marxist opposition leader Julius Malema, and it passed South Africa's Parliament by a 241-83 vote. Malema has had a long-standing commitment to land confiscation without compensation. In 2016, he told his supporters he was "not calling for the slaughter of white people &#8212; at least for now" (<a href="https://tinyurl.com/y7mfmhco" target="_blank">https://tinyurl.com/y7mfmhco</a>). The land-grabbing sentiment is also expressed by Lindsay Maasdorp, national spokesman for Black First Land First, a group that condones land seizures in South Africa. He says, "We are going to take back the land, and we'll do it by any means necessary." The land confiscation policy was a key factor in the platform of the new president, Cyril Ramaphosa.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 05, 2018</p> 16159e515f9c9c32e42ac94846903482 Immigrants and Disease for 08/29/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/immigrants-and-disease Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The Immigration and Nationality Act mandates that all immigrants and refugees undergo a medical screening examination to determine whether they have an inadmissible health condition. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has technical instructions for medical examination of prospective immigrants in their home countries before they are permitted to enter the U.S. They are screened for communicable and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, polio, measles, mumps and HIV. They are also tested for syphilis, gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases. The CDC also has medical screening guidelines for refugees. These screenings are usually performed 30 to 90 days after refugees arrive in the United States.</p> <p>But what about people who enter our country illegally? The CDC specifically cites the possibility of the cross-border movement of HIV, measles, pertussis, rubella, rabies, hepatitis A, influenza, tuberculosis, shigellosis and syphilis. Chris Cabrera, a Border Patrol agent in South Texas, warned: "What's coming over into the U.S. could harm everyone. We are starting to see scabies, chickenpox, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and different viruses." Some of the youngsters illegally entering our country are known to be carrying lice and suffering from various illnesses. Because there have been no medical examinations of undocumented immigrants, we have no idea how many are carrying infectious diseases that might endanger American children when these immigrants enter schools across our nation.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 29, 2018</p> c4114293ee85c22f476b09b2fad7f447 Bad Men, Good Presidents for 08/22/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/bad-men-good-presidents Wed, 22 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>With the continuing hysteria about Donald Trump's presidency, a few questions come to mind. The first: Can a bad man become a good president? The second: Does one's being a good man guarantee he'll be a good president? Third: Does having a good president require a good man? Is there any evidence of Lord Acton's argument that "great men are almost always bad men"?</p> <p>I think former President Jimmy Carter was a good man who became a weak and bad president, both in domestic matters and in foreign affairs. President Bill Clinton was a bad man who became a reasonably good president in domestic and foreign matters. But then there was that impeachment issue that greatly tarnished his presidency.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 22, 2018</p> 294b829f747b59346c87cf71a42b4a25 Enough's Enough for 08/15/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/enoughs-enough Wed, 15 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>During the weekend of Aug. 4-5 (and the preceding Friday night), 12 Chicagoans were shot dead, and 62 others were shot and wounded, the Chicago Tribune reported (<a href="https://tinyurl.com/yde7jb83" target="_blank">https://tinyurl.com/yde7jb83</a>). Before last week's mayhem, 1,718 Chicagoans had been shot since the beginning of the year, and 306 had been murdered. Adding to this tragedy is the fact that Chicago's clearance rate is less than 15 percent. That means that in more than 85 percent of Chicago's homicides, no suspect is charged. Chicago is by no means unique in this lawlessness. Detroit, Baltimore, Philadelphia, St. Louis and some other major cities share high rates of homicides.</p> <p>It's not just shootings and homicides that negatively impact the overwhelmingly law-abiding black residents of these cities. In addition, there are sky-high rates of burglaries, rapes and property destruction. The schools are notoriously bad. City budgets face shortfalls. Residents deal with deteriorating city services. All of this causes mass exoduses from these cities by their most capable people.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 15, 2018</p> a2eb295a2b8bfc5f8eb9b42a7e61611c Colleges: A Force for Evil for 08/08/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/colleges-a-force-for-evil Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Many of the nation's colleges have become a force for evil and a focal point for the destruction of traditional American values. The threat to our future lies in the fact that today's college students are tomorrow's teachers, professors, judges, attorneys, legislators and policymakers. A recent Brookings Institution poll suggests that nearly half of college students believe that hate speech is not protected by the First Amendment. Of course, it is. Fifty-one percent of students think that it's acceptable to shout down a speaker with whom they disagree. About 20 percent of students hold that it's acceptable to use violence to prevent a speaker from speaking. Over 50 percent say colleges should prohibit speech and viewpoints that might offend certain people (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/yayxt45u" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/yayxt45u</a>). Contempt for the First Amendment and other constitutional guarantees is probably shared by the students' high school teachers, as well as many college professors.</p> <p>Brainwashing and indoctrination of young people has produced some predictable results, as shown by a recent Gallup Poll. For the past 18 years, Gallup has asked adults how proud they are to be Americans. This year, only 47 percent say they are "extremely proud," well below the peak of 70 percent in 2003. The least proud to be Americans are nonwhites, young adults and college graduates. The proudest Americans are those older than 50 and those who did not graduate from college. The latter might be explained by their limited exposure to America's academic elite (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/y8wapel5" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/y8wapel5</a>).<p>Updated: Wed Aug 08, 2018</p> 3c14d50c6c7a54b16494cf07e0124ca4 Some Ideas to Think About for 08/01/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/18/some-ideas-to-think-about Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Poverty is no mystery, and it's easily avoidable. The poverty line that the Census Bureau used in 2016 for a single person was an income of $12,486 that year. For a two-person household, it was $16,072, and for a four-person household, it was $24,755. To beat those poverty thresholds is fairly simple. Here's the road map: Complete high school; get a job, any kind of a job; get married before having children; and be a law-abiding citizen.</p> <p>How about some numbers? A single person taking a minimum wage job would earn an annual income of $15,080. A married couple would earn $30,160. By the way, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, less than 4 percent of hourly workers in 2016 were paid the minimum wage. That means that over 96 percent of workers earned more than the minimum wage. Not surprising is the fact that among both black and white married couples, the poverty rate is in the single digits. Most poverty is in female-headed households.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 01, 2018</p> 4ed764dbf35425c9fa7034db49dcff99 Can We Trust Experts? for 07/25/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/18/can-we-trust-experts Wed, 25 Jul 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Former Treasury Secretary Larry Summers predicted that if Donald Trump were elected, there would be a protracted recession within 18 months. Heeding its experts, a month before the election, The Washington Post ran an editorial with the headline "A President Trump could destroy the world economy." Steve Rattner, a Democratic financier and former head of the National Economic Council, warned, "If the unlikely event happens and Trump wins, you will see a market crash of historic proportions." When Trump's electoral victory became apparent, Nobel Prize-winning economist and New York Times columnist Paul Krugman warned that the world was "very probably looking at a global recession, with no end in sight." By the way, Krugman has been so wrong in so many of his economic predictions, but that doesn't stop him from making more shameless predictions.</p> <p><span class="column--highlighted-text">People whom we've trusted as experts have often been wrong beyond imagination, and it's nothing new.</span> Irving Fisher, a distinguished Yale University economics professor in 1929, predicted, "Stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau." Three days later, the stock market crashed. In 1945, regarding money spent on the Manhattan Project, Adm. William Leahy told President Harry S. Truman, "That is the biggest fool thing we have ever done. The (atomic) bomb will never go off, and I speak as an expert in explosives."<p>Updated: Wed Jul 25, 2018</p> 3b7efbdfcf6b3da7fc2891e1e7a512d7 Our Rules of the Game: US Constitution for 07/18/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/18/our-rules-of-the-game-us-constitution Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Justice Anthony Kennedy's retirement, leading to President Donald Trump's nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court, has thrown progressives, the Democratic Party and the news media into an out-and-out tizzy. The online magazine Slate declared, "Anthony Kennedy Just Destroyed His Legacy as a Gay Rights Hero." The New York Times' editorial board said about a second Trump court appointment, "It is a dark moment in the history of the court and the nation, and it's about to get a lot darker."</p> <p>It's indeed a "dark moment" for those who've for decades used the courts to accomplish what would have been impossible through federal and state legislatures &#8212; such as same-sex marriage, abortion and preferences with regard to race and sex. With this Supreme Court pick &#8212; and possibly another during his term &#8212; President Trump can return us to the Framers' vision of the judiciary &#8212; a vision that's held in contempt by many liberals and conservatives.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 18, 2018</p> 1d8c8a30906f8172e68057f172211e4c Shooting Ourselves in the Foot for 07/11/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/18/shooting-ourselves-in-the-foot Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The Canadian government, lining the pockets of its dairy producers, imposes high tariffs on American dairy imports. That forces Canadians to pay higher prices for dairy products. For example, Canadians pay $5.24 for a 10.5-ounce block of cheddar. In Washington, D.C., that same amount of cheddar sells for $3.64. Canadians pay $3.99 for a 1-pound container of yogurt. In Washington, D.C., you can get nearly twice as much yogurt for a little over $4. It's clear that the Canadian government's tariffs screw its citizens by forcing them to pay higher prices for dairy products.</p> <p>What should the U.S. response be to Canada's screwing its citizens? If you were in the Trump administration, you might propose imposing tariffs on soft wood products that Americans import from Canada &#8212; in other words, retaliate against Canada by screwing American citizens. Canadian lumber &#8212; such as that from pine, spruce and fir trees &#8212; is used in U.S. homebuilding. Guess what tariffs on Canadian lumber do to home prices. If you answered that they raise the cost and American homebuyers are forced to pay higher prices, go to the head of the class.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 11, 2018</p> e77bd614aff331c9a160df002c870d96 College Destruction of Black Students for 07/04/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/18/college-destruction-of-black-students Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Amy Wax, a University of Pennsylvania law professor, has come under attack and scathing criticism because she dared criticize the school's racial preferences program. In an interview with Brown University economist Glenn Loury, discussing affirmative action, Wax mentioned how racial preferences hinder the ability of blacks to succeed academically by admitting them into schools at which they are in over their heads academically. At Penn's seventh-ranked law school, Wax said, she doesn't think that she has ever seen a black law student graduate in the top quarter of his class, and "rarely" is a black student in the top half.</p> <p>That got her into deep trouble. Penn students and faculty members charged her with racism. Penn Law School Dean Ted Ruger stripped Wax of her duty of teaching her mandatory first-year class on civil procedures. I'm guessing that Penn's law faculty members know Wax's statement is true but think it was something best left unsaid in today's racially charged climate. Ruger might have refuted Wax's claim. He surely has access to student records. He might have listed the number of black law students who were valedictorians and graduated in the top 10 percent of their class. He rightfully chose not to &#8212; so as to not provide evidence for Wax's claim.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 04, 2018</p> 7a7ba026587d94afbba61d2b1925ebd0 Diversity and Inclusion Harm II for 06/27/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/18/diversity-and-inclusion-harm-ii Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>My column a fortnight ago, titled "Diversity and Inclusion Harm," focused on the dumbing down of science, technology, engineering and mathematics curricula to achieve a more pleasing mixture of participants in terms of race and sex. Heather Mac Donald, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, wrote about this in her article titled "How Identity Politics Is Harming the Sciences" (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/y9g8k9ne" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/y9g8k9ne</a>). Mac Donald quoted a UCLA scientist who said, "All across the country the big question now in STEM is: how can we promote more women and minorities by 'changing' (i.e., lowering) the requirements we had previously set for graduate level study?" The National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health are two federal agencies that fund university research, are consumed by diversity and inclusion ideology, and have the power to yank funds from a college if it has not supported a sufficient number of "underrepresented minorities."</p> <p>In recent years, the Federal Aviation Administration has also become consumed by diversity and inclusion. Prior to becoming so, the FAA worked with about 36 colleges to create the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative. The colleges offered two- and four-year non-engineering aviation degrees requiring basic courses in air traffic control and aviation administration. Graduates of these programs became qualified candidates for training as air traffic control specialists. The FAA gave hiring preferences to veterans, those with AT-CTI program degrees, references from administrators and high test scores.<p>Updated: Wed Jun 27, 2018</p> 6bb1891bc4e2d3efefdaff3a046aabe3 Blind to Real Problems for 06/20/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/18/blind-to-real-problems Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>For several decades, a few black scholars have been suggesting that the vision held by many black Americans is entirely wrong. Dr. Shelby Steele, a scholar at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, said: "Instead of admitting that racism has declined, we (blacks) argue all the harder that it is still alive and more insidious than ever. We hold race up to shield us from what we do not want to see in ourselves."</p> <p>Dr. John McWhorter, professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University, lamented that "victimology, separatism, and anti-intellectualism underlie the general black community's response to all race-related issues," adding that "these three thought patterns impede black advancement much more than racism; and dysfunctional inner cities, corporate glass ceilings, and black educational underachievement will persist until such thinking disappears."<p>Updated: Wed Jun 20, 2018</p> 084cc228882e6060544fac0ad95a7049 Diversity and Inclusion Harm for 06/13/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/18/diversity-and-inclusion-harm Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>In conversations with most college officials, many CEOs, many politicians and race hustlers, it's not long before the magical words "diversity" and "inclusiveness" drop from their lips. Racial minorities are the intended targets of this sociological largesse, but women are included, as well. This obsession with diversity and inclusion is in the process of leading the nation to decline in a number of areas. We're told how it's doing so in science, in an article by Heather Mac Donald, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, titled "How Identity Politics Is Harming the Sciences" (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/y9g8k9ne" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/y9g8k9ne</a>).</p> <p>Mac Donald says that identity politics has already taken over the humanities and social sciences on American campuses. Waiting in the wings for a similar takeover are the STEM fields &#8212; science, technology, engineering and math. In the eyes of the diversity and inclusiveness czars, the STEM fields don't have a pleasing mixture of blacks, Hispanics and women. <span class="column--highlighted-text">The effort to get this "pleasing mix" is doing great damage to how science is taught and evaluated, threatening innovation and American competitiveness.</span><p>Updated: Wed Jun 13, 2018</p> c642c5e302837eaca5371c3e991f33e0 Past Versus Present Americans for 06/06/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/18/past-versus-present-americans Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Having enjoyed my 82nd birthday, I am part of a group of about 50 million Americans who are 65 years of age or older. Those who are 90 or older were in school during the 1930s. My age cohort was in school during the 1940s. Baby boomers approaching their 70s were in school during the 1950s and early '60s.</p> <p>Try this question to any one of those 50 million Americans who are 65 or older: Do you recall any discussions about the need to hire armed guards to protect students and teachers against school shootings? Do you remember school policemen patrolling the hallways? How many students were shot to death during the time you were in school? For me and those other Americans 65 or older, when we were in school, a conversation about hiring armed guards and having police patrol hallways would have been seen as lunacy. There was no reason.<p>Updated: Wed Jun 06, 2018</p>