Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams Creators Syndicate is an international syndication company that represents cartoonists and columnists of the highest caliber. en Sun, 16 Dec 2018 07:03:55 -0800 https://www.creators.com/ http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://cdn.creators.com/features/walter-e-williams-thumb.jpg https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams 4f754eef5784e0fb9aed69f47993c675 Acceptable Racism for 12/12/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/12/18/acceptable-racism Wed, 12 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>How appropriate would it be for a major publicly held American company to hire a person with a history of having publicly made the following statements and many others like them? (In the interest of brevity, I shall list only four.) "The world could get by just fine with zero black people." "It's kind of sick how much joy I get out of being cruel to old black men." "Dumbass f&#8212;-ing black people marking up the internet with their opinions like dogs pissing on fire hydrants." "Are black people genetically predisposed to burn faster in the sun, thus logically only being fit to live underground like groveling bilious goblins?"</p> <p>I think most Americans would find such blatant racism despicable and would condemn any company that knowingly hired such a person. Leftists of every stripe would be in an uproar, demanding the dismissal of such an employee. College students and their professors would picket any company that hired such a person. I could be wrong about this, so I'd truly like any employer who'd hire such a person to come forward.<p>Updated: Wed Dec 12, 2018</p> 7dbcbe42d4804b5b53ccfbb446052f0e Miseducated or Stupid? for 12/05/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/12/18/miseducated-or-stupid Wed, 05 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>A recent Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation survey found that 51 percent of American millennials would rather live in a socialist or communist country than in a capitalist country. Only 42 percent prefer the latter (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/ybsejy3f" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/ybsejy3f</a>). Twenty-five percent of millennials who know who Vladimir Lenin was view him favorably. Lenin was the first premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Half of millennials have never heard of Communist Mao Zedong, who ruled China from 1949 to 1976 and was responsible for the deaths of 45 million Chinese people.</p> <p>The number of people who died at the hands of Josef Stalin may be as high as 62 million. However, almost one-third of millennials think former President George W. Bush is responsible for more killings than Stalin (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/yb43dlhm" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/yb43dlhm</a>). By the way, Adolf Hitler, head of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, was responsible for the deaths of about 20 million people. The Nazis come in as a poor third in terms of history's most prolific mass murderers. According to professor Rudolph Rummel's research, the 20th century, mankind's most brutal century, saw 262 million people's lives destroyed at the hands of their own governments (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/lu8z8ab" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/lu8z8ab</a>).<p>Updated: Thu Dec 06, 2018</p> c7fcca4403566a617963fec8bd60f744 Black Education: What Makes Sense? for 11/28/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/18/black-education-what-makes-sense Wed, 28 Nov 2018 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>What do you think of the proposition that no black youngsters should be saved from educational rot until all can be saved? Black people cannot afford to accept such a proposition. Actions by the education establishment, black and white liberal politicians, and some civil rights organizations appear to support the proposition. Let's look at it with the help of some data developed by my friend and colleague Dr. Thomas Sowell.</p> <p>The Nation's Report Card for 2017 showed the following reading scores for fourth-graders in New York state's public schools: Thirty-two percent scored below basic, with 32 percent scoring basic, 27 percent scoring proficient and 9 percent scoring advanced. When it came to black fourth-graders in the state, 19 percent scored proficient, and 3 percent scored advanced (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/y85a4phm" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/y85a4phm</a>).<p>Updated: Wed Nov 28, 2018</p> 0b2a6339617dd94b988cbd79a5560861 Fruits of College Indoctrination for 11/21/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/18/fruits-of-college-indoctrination Wed, 21 Nov 2018 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p><span class="column--highlighted-text">Much of today's incivility and contempt for personal liberty has its roots on college campuses, and most of the uncivil and contemptuous are people with college backgrounds.</span> Let's look at a few highly publicized recent examples of incivility and attacks on free speech.</p> <p>Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and his wife, Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao, were accosted and harassed by a deranged left-wing mob as they were leaving a dinner at Georgetown University. Sen. McConnell was harassed by protesters at Reagan National Airport, as well as at several venues in Kentucky. Sen. Ted Cruz and his wife were harassed at a Washington, D.C., restaurant. Afterward, a group called Smash Racism DC wrote: "No &#8212; you can't eat in peace &#8212; your politics are an attack on all of us. You're (sic) votes are a death wish. Your votes are hate crimes." Other members of Congress &#8212; such as Andy Harris, Susan Collins and Rand Paul &#8212; have been physically attacked or harassed by leftists. Most recent is the case of Fox News political commentator Tucker Carlson. A leftist group showed up at his house at night, damaging his front door and chanting, "Tucker Carlson, we will fight! We know where you sleep at night!" "Racist scumbag, leave town!"<p>Updated: Wed Nov 21, 2018</p> a7ab5b3f1566eb4b1e7294f9c04ce395 We Have an Identity Problem for 11/14/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/18/we-have-an-identity-problem Wed, 14 Nov 2018 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>According to a recent report in The New York Times, Health and Human Services Department officials have been circulating a proposal to define sex. Their memo says, "Sex means a person's status as male or female based on immutable biological traits identifiable by or before birth." They add, "The sex listed on a person's birth certificate, as originally issued, shall constitute definitive proof of a person's sex unless rebutted by reliable genetic evidence." I think the latter statement lacks complete rigor. It's chromosomes, not what's on a birth certificate, that determine one's sex. Therefore, if a fetus has XX chromosomes, a female is born, and if a fetus has XY chromosomes, a male is born.</p> <p><span class="column--highlighted-text">What's an open-and-shut case in biology can become confused in the political/social arena</span>, particularly when one's sex is referred to as one's gender. By the way, before modern times, the term gender was used solely when referring to the grammar of some languages, such as French, in which nouns and pronouns are masculine, feminine or neuter and require words syntactically associated with them. Gender has become completely disassociated with biological reasoning. For example, in the past when a person signed up for a Facebook account, "male" and "female" were the only options. In 2014, Facebook introduced 50 gender options, including intersex, gender nonconforming, non-binary and androgynous (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/y9sb3a3j" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/y9sb3a3j</a>).<p>Updated: Wed Nov 14, 2018</p> a2b267e145ec877906c19d2a79abf6a7 Skin in the Game for 11/07/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/18/skin-in-the-game Wed, 07 Nov 2018 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>In describing the GOP tax cuts, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said that they and bonuses American workers were getting were "crumbs." They were "tax cuts for the rich." Some argued that the tax cuts would reduce revenues. Pelosi predicted, "This thing will explode the deficit." How about some tax facts?</p> <p>The argument that tax cuts reduce federal revenues can be disposed of quite easily. According to the Congressional Budget Office, revenues from federal income taxes were $76 billion higher in the first half of this year than they were in the first half of 2017. The Treasury Department says it expects that federal revenues will continue to exceed last year's for the rest of 2018. Despite record federal revenues, 2018 will see a massive deficit, perhaps topping $1 trillion. Our massive deficit is a result not of tax cuts but of profligate congressional spending that outruns rising tax revenues. Grossly false statements about tax cuts' reducing revenue should be put to rest in the wake of federal revenue increases seen with tax cuts during the Kennedy, Reagan and Trump administrations.<p>Updated: Wed Nov 07, 2018</p> 3d931bc106406b17235dd2f491ca07a6 Democratic-Controlled House for 10/31/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/democratic-controlled-house Wed, 31 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Democrats are hoping the coming election will give them a majority in the House of Representatives. Republicans and much of our nation dread that prospect. My question is: What would a House majority mean for the Democrats? Let's look at it.</p> <p>To control the House of Representatives, Democrats must win at least 218 seats, which many predict as being likely. To control the Senate, Democrats must win enough seats to get to 51, which many predict is unlikely. Let's say the Democrats do take the House. If they were to pass a measure that Republicans in both houses didn't like and President Donald Trump didn't like, either, he could use his veto pen. To override Trump's veto, Democrats would need to meet the U.S. Constitution's requirement that they muster a two-thirds vote in the House of Representatives (290 votes) and a two-thirds vote in the Senate (67 votes). Neither would be likely.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 31, 2018</p> d9f3bac58a942b3b57e462996a1f897f Price Gouging During a Natural Disaster for 10/24/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/price-gouging-during-a-natural-disaster Wed, 24 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Thirteen states &#8212; Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia &#8212; have enacted laws to combat what is seen as price gouging in the wake of natural disasters. Price gouging is legally defined as charging 10 to 25 percent more for something than you charged for it during the month before an emergency. Sellers convicted of price gouging face prison terms and fines.</p> <p>Price gouging in the wake of natural disasters is often seen as evil exploitation by sellers to rip off desperate customers. Let's hold off on that conclusion until after you give thought to some very important questions. First let's see what we can agree upon.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 24, 2018</p> d5857f865e21e70a633ff8c03c161edc The Electoral College Debate for 10/17/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/the-electoral-college-debate Wed, 17 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Democratic socialist Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, seeking to represent New York's 14th Congressional District, has called for the abolition of the Electoral College. Her argument came on the heels of the Senate's confirming Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. She was lamenting the fact that Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Samuel Alito, nominated by George W. Bush, and Justices Neil Gorsuch and Kavanaugh, nominated by Donald Trump, were court appointments made by presidents who lost the popular vote but won the Electoral College vote.</p> <p>Hillary Clinton has long been a critic of the Electoral College. Just recently, she wrote in The Atlantic, "You won't be surprised to hear that I passionately believe it's time to abolish the Electoral College."<p>Updated: Wed Oct 17, 2018</p> 4b185cdccc3581472829faf16c81bb84 Real Economics for 10/10/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/real-economics Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>A widely anticipated textbook, "Universal Economics," has just been published by Liberty Fund. Its authors are two noted UCLA economists, the late Armen A. Alchian and William R. Allen. Editor Jerry L. Jordan was their student and later became a member of President Ronald Reagan's Council of Economic Advisers, as well as the president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Professor Alchian was probably the greatest microeconomic theorist of the 20th century, while Professor Allen's genius was in the area of international trade and the history of economic thought. Both were tenacious mentors of mine during my student days at UCLA in the mid-1960s and early '70s.</p> <p>"Universal Economics'" 680 pages, not including its glossary and index, reflect a friendly chat I had with Professor Alchian during one of the UCLA economics department's weekly faculty/graduate student coffee hour, in which he said, "Williams, the true test of whether someone understands his subject is whether he can explain it to someone who doesn't know a darn thing about it." That's precisely what "Universal Economics" does &#8212; explain economics in a way that anyone can understand. There's no economic jargon, just a tiny bit of simple mathematics and a few graphs.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 10, 2018</p> 05a8d6261761f9554fd0a4409d06b65a Racial Disparities in School Discipline for 10/03/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/18/racial-disparities-in-school-discipline Wed, 03 Oct 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>President Barack Obama's first education secretary, Arne Duncan, gave a speech on the 45th anniversary of "Bloody Sunday" at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, where, in 1965, state troopers beat and tear-gassed hundreds of peaceful civil rights marchers who were demanding voting rights. Later that year, as a result of widespread support across the nation, the U.S. Congress passed the Voting Rights Act. Secretary Duncan titled his speech "Crossing the Next Bridge." Duncan told the crowd that black students "are more than three times as likely to be expelled as their white peers," adding that Martin Luther King would be "dismayed."</p> <p>Gail Heriot, a law professor at the University of San Diego and a member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and her special assistant and counselor, Alison Somin, have written an important article in the Texas Review of Law & Politics, titled "The Department of Education's Obama-Era Initiative on Racial Disparities in School Discipline" (Spring 2018). The article is about the departments of Education and Justice's "disparate impact" vision, wherein they see racial discrimination as the factor that explains why black male students face suspension and expulsion more often than other students.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 03, 2018</p> e634891d81d849f88fa7aa8e0e3eeeb1 University Corruption for 09/26/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/university-corruption Wed, 26 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>I'm thankful that increasing attention is being paid to the dire state of higher education in our country. Heather Mac Donald, a fellow at the Manhattan Institute, has just published "The Diversity Delusion." Its subtitle captures much of the book's content: "How Race and Gender Pandering Corrupt the University and Undermine Our Culture." Part of the gender pandering at our universities is seen in the effort to satisfy the diversity-obsessed National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, each of which gives millions of dollars of grant money to universities. If universities don't make an effort to diversify their science, technology, engineering and math (known as STEM) programs, they risk losing millions in grant money.</p> <p>A UCLA scientist says, "All across the country the big question now in STEM is: how can we promote more women and minorities by 'changing' (i.e., lowering) the requirements we had previously set for graduate level study?" Mac Donald says, "Mathematical problem-solving is being deemphasized in favor of more qualitative group projects; the pace of undergraduate physics education is being slowed down so that no one gets left behind."<p>Updated: Wed Sep 26, 2018</p> 631d2c219281af08be98277c10651ca4 Reasoning About Race for 09/19/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/reasoning-about-race Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>So much of our reasoning about race is both emotional and faulty. In ordinary, as well as professional, conversation, we use terms such as discrimination, prejudice, racial preferences and racism interchangeably, as if they referred to the same behavior. We can avoid many pitfalls of misguided thinking about race by establishing operational definitions so as to not confuse one behavior with another.</p> <p>Discrimination can be operationally defined as an act of choice. Our entire lives are spent choosing to do or not to do thousands of activities. Choosing requires non-choosing. When you chose to read this column, you discriminated against other possible uses of your time. When you chose a spouse, you discriminated against other people. When I chose Mrs. Williams, I systematically discriminated against other women. Much of it was racial. Namely, I discriminated against white women, Asian women, fat women and women with criminal backgrounds. In a word, I didn't offer every woman an equal opportunity, and they didn't offer me an equal opportunity.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 19, 2018</p> e464da766ee6b687e0e9fe9e6f7c2276 It's Our Constitution -- Not Kavanaugh for 09/12/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/its-our-constitution-not-kavanaugh Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>One of the best statements of how the Framers saw the role of the federal government is found in Federalist Paper 45, written by James Madison, who is known as the "Father of the Constitution": "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce. ... The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people." Today's reality is the polar opposite of that vision. The powers of the federal government are numerous and indefinite, and those of state governments are few and defined.</p> <p>If confirmed, Brett Kavanaugh will bring to the U.S. Supreme Court a vision closer to that of the Framers than the vision of those who believe that the Constitution is a "living document." Those Americans rallying against Kavanaugh's confirmation are really against the U.S. Constitution rather than the man &#8212; Judge Kavanaugh &#8212; whom I believe would take seriously his oath of office to uphold and defend the Constitution.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 12, 2018</p> e2d052ef28495e232ead12f88e2580d7 South Africa Question for 09/05/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/18/south-africa-question Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>South Africa has been thrown into the news because of President Donald Trump's recent tweet that he instructed his secretary of state to "closely study" alleged land seizures from white farmers in South Africa.</p> <p>Earlier this year, a land confiscation motion was brought by radical Marxist opposition leader Julius Malema, and it passed South Africa's Parliament by a 241-83 vote. Malema has had a long-standing commitment to land confiscation without compensation. In 2016, he told his supporters he was "not calling for the slaughter of white people &#8212; at least for now" (<a href="https://tinyurl.com/y7mfmhco" target="_blank">https://tinyurl.com/y7mfmhco</a>). The land-grabbing sentiment is also expressed by Lindsay Maasdorp, national spokesman for Black First Land First, a group that condones land seizures in South Africa. He says, "We are going to take back the land, and we'll do it by any means necessary." The land confiscation policy was a key factor in the platform of the new president, Cyril Ramaphosa.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 05, 2018</p> 16159e515f9c9c32e42ac94846903482 Immigrants and Disease for 08/29/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/immigrants-and-disease Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The Immigration and Nationality Act mandates that all immigrants and refugees undergo a medical screening examination to determine whether they have an inadmissible health condition. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has technical instructions for medical examination of prospective immigrants in their home countries before they are permitted to enter the U.S. They are screened for communicable and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, polio, measles, mumps and HIV. They are also tested for syphilis, gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases. The CDC also has medical screening guidelines for refugees. These screenings are usually performed 30 to 90 days after refugees arrive in the United States.</p> <p>But what about people who enter our country illegally? The CDC specifically cites the possibility of the cross-border movement of HIV, measles, pertussis, rubella, rabies, hepatitis A, influenza, tuberculosis, shigellosis and syphilis. Chris Cabrera, a Border Patrol agent in South Texas, warned: "What's coming over into the U.S. could harm everyone. We are starting to see scabies, chickenpox, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and different viruses." Some of the youngsters illegally entering our country are known to be carrying lice and suffering from various illnesses. Because there have been no medical examinations of undocumented immigrants, we have no idea how many are carrying infectious diseases that might endanger American children when these immigrants enter schools across our nation.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 29, 2018</p> c4114293ee85c22f476b09b2fad7f447 Bad Men, Good Presidents for 08/22/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/bad-men-good-presidents Wed, 22 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>With the continuing hysteria about Donald Trump's presidency, a few questions come to mind. The first: Can a bad man become a good president? The second: Does one's being a good man guarantee he'll be a good president? Third: Does having a good president require a good man? Is there any evidence of Lord Acton's argument that "great men are almost always bad men"?</p> <p>I think former President Jimmy Carter was a good man who became a weak and bad president, both in domestic matters and in foreign affairs. President Bill Clinton was a bad man who became a reasonably good president in domestic and foreign matters. But then there was that impeachment issue that greatly tarnished his presidency.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 22, 2018</p> 294b829f747b59346c87cf71a42b4a25 Enough's Enough for 08/15/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/enoughs-enough Wed, 15 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>During the weekend of Aug. 4-5 (and the preceding Friday night), 12 Chicagoans were shot dead, and 62 others were shot and wounded, the Chicago Tribune reported (<a href="https://tinyurl.com/yde7jb83" target="_blank">https://tinyurl.com/yde7jb83</a>). Before last week's mayhem, 1,718 Chicagoans had been shot since the beginning of the year, and 306 had been murdered. Adding to this tragedy is the fact that Chicago's clearance rate is less than 15 percent. That means that in more than 85 percent of Chicago's homicides, no suspect is charged. Chicago is by no means unique in this lawlessness. Detroit, Baltimore, Philadelphia, St. Louis and some other major cities share high rates of homicides.</p> <p>It's not just shootings and homicides that negatively impact the overwhelmingly law-abiding black residents of these cities. In addition, there are sky-high rates of burglaries, rapes and property destruction. The schools are notoriously bad. City budgets face shortfalls. Residents deal with deteriorating city services. All of this causes mass exoduses from these cities by their most capable people.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 15, 2018</p> a2eb295a2b8bfc5f8eb9b42a7e61611c Colleges: A Force for Evil for 08/08/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/18/colleges-a-force-for-evil Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Many of the nation's colleges have become a force for evil and a focal point for the destruction of traditional American values. The threat to our future lies in the fact that today's college students are tomorrow's teachers, professors, judges, attorneys, legislators and policymakers. A recent Brookings Institution poll suggests that nearly half of college students believe that hate speech is not protected by the First Amendment. Of course, it is. Fifty-one percent of students think that it's acceptable to shout down a speaker with whom they disagree. About 20 percent of students hold that it's acceptable to use violence to prevent a speaker from speaking. Over 50 percent say colleges should prohibit speech and viewpoints that might offend certain people (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/yayxt45u" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/yayxt45u</a>). Contempt for the First Amendment and other constitutional guarantees is probably shared by the students' high school teachers, as well as many college professors.</p> <p>Brainwashing and indoctrination of young people has produced some predictable results, as shown by a recent Gallup Poll. For the past 18 years, Gallup has asked adults how proud they are to be Americans. This year, only 47 percent say they are "extremely proud," well below the peak of 70 percent in 2003. The least proud to be Americans are nonwhites, young adults and college graduates. The proudest Americans are those older than 50 and those who did not graduate from college. The latter might be explained by their limited exposure to America's academic elite (<a href="http://tinyurl.com/y8wapel5" target="_blank">http://tinyurl.com/y8wapel5</a>).<p>Updated: Wed Aug 08, 2018</p> 3c14d50c6c7a54b16494cf07e0124ca4 Some Ideas to Think About for 08/01/2018 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/18/some-ideas-to-think-about Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Poverty is no mystery, and it's easily avoidable. The poverty line that the Census Bureau used in 2016 for a single person was an income of $12,486 that year. For a two-person household, it was $16,072, and for a four-person household, it was $24,755. To beat those poverty thresholds is fairly simple. Here's the road map: Complete high school; get a job, any kind of a job; get married before having children; and be a law-abiding citizen.</p> <p>How about some numbers? A single person taking a minimum wage job would earn an annual income of $15,080. A married couple would earn $30,160. By the way, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, less than 4 percent of hourly workers in 2016 were paid the minimum wage. That means that over 96 percent of workers earned more than the minimum wage. Not surprising is the fact that among both black and white married couples, the poverty rate is in the single digits. Most poverty is in female-headed households.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 01, 2018</p>