Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams Creators Syndicate is an international syndication company that represents cartoonists and columnists of the highest caliber. en Tue, 12 Nov 2019 17:59:04 -0800 https://www.creators.com/ http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://cdn.creators.com/features/walter-e-williams-thumb.jpg https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams 8cdd7f88686b0bf64ef323185c0e2aa3 Young People Ignorant of History for 11/13/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/19/young-people-ignorant-of-history Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>A recent survey conducted by the Victims of Communism and polled by YouGov, a research and data firm, found that 70% of millennials are likely to vote socialist and that one in three millennials saw communism as "favorable."</p> <p>Let examine this tragic vision in light of the Fraser Institute's recently released annual study "Economic Freedom of the World," prepared by Professors James Gwartney, Florida State University; Robert A. Lawson and Ryan Murphy of Southern Methodist University; and Joshua Hall, West Virginia University, in cooperation with the Economic Freedom Network.<p>Updated: Wed Nov 13, 2019</p> e8b0bf37f947a7ba1ebae9be0c9d2fa7 Disproportionalities: Whose Fault? for 11/06/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/19/disproportionalities-whose-fault Wed, 06 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>Jews have been awarded 40% of the Nobel Prizes in economics, 30% of those in medicine, 25% in physics, 20% in chemistry, 15% in literature and 10% of the Nobel Peace Prizes. Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been just over 900 Nobel Prizes awarded. Since Jews are only 2% of the world's population, instead having 22% of Nobel Prizes, 206, they should have won only two, according to the proportionality vision of justice. There's an even greater domestic violation of the proportionality vision. Jews are less than 3% of the U.S. population but 35% of American Nobel Prize winners. Several questions come to mind. Does the disproportionately high number of Jewish winners explain why there are so few black or Hispanic Nobel Prize winners? Who's to blame for ethnic disproportionality among Nobel Prize winners, and what can be done to promote social justice?</p> <p>Proportionality injustice doesn't end with the Nobel Prize. Blacks are about 13% of the U.S. population but close to 70% of the players in the National Football League. Blacks are greatly overrepresented among star players and highly paid players. While the disproportionality injustice runs in favor of black players in general, they are all but nonexistent among the league's field goal kickers and punters. Perhaps the only reason why football team owners are not charged with hiring discrimination is that the same people who hire quarterbacks and running backs also hire field goal kickers and punters. Proportionality and diversity injustice is worse in the National Basketball Association, with blacks being over 80% of the players. Plus, it's not uncommon to watch college basketball games and see that 90 to 100% of the starting five players are black. <p>Updated: Wed Nov 06, 2019</p> c76aa895b42197f66849773d2849269f Gun Grabbers Misleading Us for 10/30/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/19/gun-grabbers-misleading-us Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Gun control did not become politically acceptable until the Gun Control Act of 1968 signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The law's primary focus was to regulate commerce in firearms by prohibiting interstate firearms transfers except among licensed manufacturers, dealers and importers. Today's gun control advocates have gone much further, calling for an outright ban of what they call assault rifles such as the AR-15. By the way, AR stands for ArmaLite Rifle, which is manufactured by Colt Manufacturing Co. <span class="column--highlighted-text">As for being a military assault weapon, our soldiers would be laughed off the battlefield carrying AR-15s.</span></p> <p>Let's look at some FBI statistics on homicide and then you can decide how many homicides would be prevented by a ban on rifles. The FBI lists murder victims by weapon from 2014 to 2018 in their 2018 report on Crime in the United States. It turns out that slightly over 2% (297) out of a total of 14,123 homicides were committed with rifles. A total of 1,515 or 11% of homicides were committed by knives. Four hundred and forty-three people were murdered with a hammer, club or some other bludgeoning instrument. Six hundred seventy-two people were murdered by a hand, foot or fist. Handguns accounted for the most murders &#8212; 6,603.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 30, 2019</p> 549ae49e153fbc1611dc13af19635967 US in Moral Decline for 10/22/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/19/us-in-moral-decline Tue, 22 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Last week, U.S. Attorney General William Barr told a University of Notre Dame Law School audience that attacks on religious liberty have contributed to a moral decline that's in part manifested by increases in suicides, mental illness and drug addiction. Barr said that our moral decline is not random but "organized destruction." Namely that "Secularists and their allies have marshaled all the forces of mass communication, popular culture, the entertainment industry, and academia in an unremitting assault on religion and traditional values."</p> <p>The attorney general is absolutely correct. Whether we have the stomach to own up to it or not, we have become an immoral people left with little more than the pretense of morality. The left's attack on religion is just the tiny tip of the iceberg in our nation's moral decline. You say: "That's a pretty heavy charge, Williams. You'd better be prepared to back it up with evidence!" I'll try with a few questions for you to answer.<p>Updated: Tue Oct 22, 2019</p> 86f8d222b0341c2f1164179fb57830b7 Intolerance in Academia for 10/16/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/19/intolerance-in-academia Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p></p><p>If you need an accurate update on some of the madness at the nation's institutions of higher learning, check out Minding the Campus, a nonprofit independent organization. John Leo, its editor in chief, says that&#160;<a href="https://tinyurl.com/yxww7gth" target="_blank">the organization's</a>&#160;prime mission is dedicated to the revival of intellectual pluralism and the best traditions of liberal education at America's colleges and universities. Leo's most recent compilation of campus madness leaves one nearly breathless.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 16, 2019</p> 84f3cd43fe0b853ded72508b29879e37 Idiotic Environmental Predictions for 10/09/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/19/idiotic-environmental-predictions Wed, 09 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The Competitive Enterprise Institute has published a new paper, "Wrong Again: 50 Years of Failed Eco-pocalyptic Predictions." Keep in mind that many of the grossly wrong environmentalist predictions were made by respected scientists and government officials. My question for you is: If you were around at the time, how many government restrictions and taxes would you have urged to avoid the predicted calamity?</p> <p>As reported in The New York Times (Aug. 1969) Stanford University biologist Dr. Paul Erhlich warned: "The trouble with almost all environmental problems is that by the time we have enough evidence to convince people, you're dead. We must realize that unless we're extremely lucky, everybody will disappear in a cloud of blue steam in 20 years." <p>Updated: Wed Oct 09, 2019</p> f1a43da39e495fd022ab449cf3ba340f Who Cares About You? for 10/02/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/19/who-cares-about-you Wed, 02 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>During my student days at a UCLA economics department faculty/graduate student coffee hour in the 1960s, I was chatting with Professor Armen Alchian, probably the greatest microeconomic theory economist of the 20th century. I was trying to impress Alchian with my knowledge of statistical type I and type II errors. I explained that unlike my wife, who assumed that everyone was her friend until they prove differently, my assumption was everyone was an enemy until they proved otherwise. The result: My wife's vision maximized the number of her friends but maximized her chances of betrayal. My vision minimized my chances of betrayal at a cost of minimizing the number of my friends.</p> <p>Alchian, donning a mischievous smile asked, "Williams, have you considered a third alternative, namely, that people don't give a damn about you one way or another?" Initially, I felt a bit insulted, and our conversation didn't go much further, but that was typical of Alchian &#8212; saying something profound, perhaps controversial, without much comment and letting you think it out.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 02, 2019</p> e6c576c5381100112548f75f14e93a12 Youth and Ignorance for 09/25/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/19/youth-and-ignorance Wed, 25 Sep 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Camille Paglia is a professor of humanities and media studies at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, where she has been a faculty member since 1984. Paglia describes herself as transgender, but unlike so many other transgender people, she is pro-capitalism and hostile to those who'd restrict free speech. She's a libertarian. As to modern ideas that include "gender-inclusive pronouns" such as zie, sie and zim, Paglia says it is lunacy. In a 2017 interview, Paglia was especially irritated by the thought police running college campuses today. In defending University of Toronto professor Jordan Peterson, who has become a pariah for his refusal to cave in to nonsensical gender-inclusive pronouns, Paglia said that the English language was created by great artists such as Chaucer and Shakespeare, Wordsworth and Joyce. She added: "How dare you, you sniveling little maniac, tell us how we're gonna use pronouns! Go take a hike."</p> <p>On feminism, Paglia criticizes what she calls the "antisex and repressively doctrinaire side of feminism." She calls it "victim feminism" and complains that "everything we'd won in the 1990s has been totally swept away. Now we have this endless privileging of victimhood, with a pathological vulnerability seen as the default human mode." Everyone must yield to it "in the workplace, in universities, in the demand for safe spaces." Paglia adds, "What I am saying throughout my work is that girls who are indoctrinated to see men not as equals but as oppressors and rapists are condemned to remain in a permanently juvenile condition for life."<p>Updated: Wed Sep 25, 2019</p> fd81a863fb99103eb9a3bf6208c53577 Racist Exam Questions? for 09/18/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/19/racist-exam-questions Wed, 18 Sep 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The U.S. Department of Justice has recently sued the Baltimore County government alleging that its written test for police officer recruits was unfairly biased against black applicants. It turns out that black applicants failed the written test at a rate much greater than white applicants. That results in fewer blacks being trained and hired as police officers. John A. Olszewski Jr., Baltimore County Executive said: "A law enforcement agency should look like the community it serves. As I have said repeatedly since taking office, I am committed to increasing diversity in the county's Police Department."</p> <p>Baltimore City uses Municipal Police Selection Test. You can examine some sample questions at its website. I'd like to know which of the questions are either unrelated to police work or racist. Many jurisdictions use The National Police Officer Selection Test. You can examine some of the sample questions at its website. Again, I'd like to know which of the questions are unrelated to police work or are racially biased questions. In addition, it has been found that MPST and POST are successful predictors of law enforcement training success and job performance.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 18, 2019</p> a28f45768d347a16831a0de328d52aa9 Academic Stupidity and Brainwashing for 09/10/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/19/academic-stupidity-and-brainwashing Tue, 10 Sep 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p>Just when we thought colleges could not spout loonier ideas, we have a new one from American University. They hired a professor to teach other professors to grade students based on their "labor" rather than their writing ability. The professor that American University hired to teach that nonsense is Asao B. Inoue, who is a professor and associate dean in the College of Integrative Sciences and Arts at Arizona State University. He is also the director of the university's writing center. Inoue believes that a person's writing ability should not be assessed, in order to promote "anti-racist" objectives. Inoue taught American University's faculty members that their previous practices of grading writing promoted white language supremacy. Inoue thinks that students should be graded on the effort they put into a project.</p> <p>The idea to bring such a professor to American University, where parents and students fork over $48,459 a year in tuition charges, could not have been something thought up by saner members of its academic community. Instead, it was probably the result of deep thinking by the university's diversity and campus life officials. Inoue's views are not simply extreme but possibly hostile to the academic mission of most universities. <span class="column--highlighted-text">Forgiving and ignoring a students' writing ability would mostly affect black students. </span>White students' speaking and writing would be judged against the King's English, defined as standard, pure or correct English grammar.</p> <p>Professor Noam Chomsky, called the father of modern linguistics, formulated the generative theory of language. According to his theory, the most basic form of language is a set of syntactic rules that is universal for all humans and that underlies the grammar of all human languages. We analyze and interpret our environment with words and sentences in a structured language. Oral and written language provides a set of rules that enables us to organize thoughts and construct logical meaning with our thoughts. <p>Updated: Tue Sep 17, 2019</p> db8d344087cf7ddc4f3a82913398fb59 Criminologists Mislead Us for 09/04/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/09/19/criminologists-mislead-us Wed, 04 Sep 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>John Paul Wright, professor at University of Cincinnati, and Matthew DeLisi professor at Iowa State University have penned a powerful article titled "<a href="https://www.city-journal.org/html/what-criminologists-dont-say-and-why-15328.html" target="_blank">What Criminologists Don't Say, and Why</a>," in City Journal, Summer 2017. There is significant bias among criminologists. The reason for that bias is that political leanings of academic criminologists are liberal. Liberal criminologists outnumber their conservative counterparts by a ratio of 30-to-1. Ideology almost perfectly predicts the position of criminologists on issues from gun control to capital punishment to harsh sentencing. Liberal criminologists march in step for gun control, oppose punitive prison sentences, and are vehemently against the death penalty.</p> <p>In 2012, the National Academy of Sciences commissioned a study on the growth of incarceration. It showed that from 1928 until 1960, crime rates rose slowly each year. After the 1960s, crime rates exploded to unprecedented levels of violence until the 1990s. Prior to 1980, only 40% of individuals arrested for murder were sentenced to prison and those that were served an average of five years. In 1981, less than 10% of those arrested for sexual assault were sentenced to prison. Those who were sentenced served an average of 3.4 years. Liberal criminologists probably believe that light sentencing for murderers and rapists is just.<p>Updated: Wed Sep 04, 2019</p> cef2b7793e01c3638e47b47ead73a273 Beginning of US Slavery for 08/28/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/19/beginning-of-us-slavery Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p>The New York Times has begun a major initiative, the "1619 Project," to observe the 400th anniversary of the beginning of American slavery. It aims to reframe American history so that slavery and the contributions of black Americans explain who we are as a nation. Nikole Hannah-Jones, staff writer for The New York Times Magazine wrote the lead article, "America Wasn't a Democracy, Until Black Americans Made It One." She writes, "Without the idealistic, strenuous and patriotic efforts of black Americans, our democracy today would most likely look very different &#8212; it might not be a democracy at all."</p> <p>There are several challenges one can make about Hannah-Jones' article, but I'm going to focus on the article's most serious error, namely that the nation's founders intended for us to be a democracy. That error is shared by too many Americans. The word democracy appears nowhere in the two most fundamental founding documents of our nation &#8212; the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Instead of a democracy, the Constitution's Article IV, Section 4, declares, "The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government." Think about it and ask yourself whether our Pledge of Allegiance says to "the democracy for which it stands" or to "the republic for which it stands." Is Julia Ward Howe's popular Civil War song titled "The Battle Hymn of the Democracy" or "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"?</p> <p>The founders had utter contempt for democracy. James Madison, the acknowledged father of the Constitution, wrote in Federalist Paper No. 10, that in a pure democracy "there is nothing to check the inducement to sacrifice the weaker party or the obnoxious individual." At the 1787 Constitutional Convention, delegate Edmund Randolph said, "that in tracing these evils to their origin every man had found it in the turbulence and follies of democracy." John Adams said: "Remember, democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself. There was never a democracy yet that did not commit suicide." U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall observed, "Between a balanced republic and a democracy, the difference is like that between order and chaos." <p>Updated: Wed Aug 28, 2019</p> a738e06f3e65a1684a08098c9e8703ca What Will They Learn at College? for 08/21/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/19/what-will-they-learn-at-college Wed, 21 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>For many parents, August is a month of both pride and tears. Pride because their teenager is taking that big educational step and tears because for many it's the beginning of an empty nest. Yet, there's a going-away-to-college question that far too few parents ask or even contemplate: What will my youngster learn in college?</p> <p>The American Council of Trustees and Alumni provides some answers that turn out to be quite disturbing. ACTA evaluated every four-year public university as well as hundreds of private colleges and universities. That's more than 1,100 institutions that enroll nearly 8 million students, more than two-thirds of all students enrolled in four-year liberal arts schools nationwide. ACTA's findings were published in their report "What Will They Learn? 2018-19." It doesn't look good.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 21, 2019</p> 0dd6549a6201d2524ddfc2fdd6cc7a2b How Important Is Today's Racial Discrimination? for 08/14/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/19/how-important-is-todays-racial-discrimination Wed, 14 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>There is discrimination of all sorts, and that includes racial discrimination. Thus, it's somewhat foolhardy to debate the existence of racial discrimination yesteryear or today. From a policy point of view, a far more useful question to ask is: How much of the plight of many blacks can be explained by current racial discrimination? Let's examine some of today's most devastating problems of many black people with an eye toward addressing discrimination of the past and present. </p> <p>At the root of most of the problems black people face is the breakdown of the family structure. Slightly over 70% of black children are raised in female-headed households. According to statistics about fatherless homes, 90% of homeless and runaway children are from fatherless homes; 71% of pregnant teenagers lack a father figure; 63% of youth suicides are from fatherless homes; 71% of high school dropouts come from fatherless homes; and 70% of juveniles in state-operated institutions have no father. Furthermore, fatherless boys and girls are twice as likely to drop out of high school and twice as likely to end up in jail.<p>Updated: Wed Aug 14, 2019</p> a64202cedcccd2878e2353d12028a5ec Was Trump Right About Baltimore? for 08/07/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/08/19/was-trump-right-about-baltimore Wed, 07 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Here's what President Donald Trump tweeted about Baltimore's congressman and his city: "Rep. Elijah Cummings has been a brutal bully, shouting and screaming at the great men & women of Border Patrol about conditions at the Southern Border, when actually his Baltimore district is far worse and more dangerous. His district is considered the worst in the USA."</p> <p>"As proven last week during a congressional tour, the border is clean, efficient and well run, just very crowded," Trump added. Cumming's "district is a disgusting, rat and rodent infested mess. If he spent more time in Baltimore, maybe he could help clean up this very dangerous & filthy place."<p>Updated: Wed Aug 07, 2019</p> c4b24579f8f4f14a8cbab366f79117fc Being a Racist Is Easy Today for 07/31/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/19/being-a-racist-is-easy-today Wed, 31 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Years ago, it was hard to be a racist. You had to be fitted for and spend money on a white gown and don a pointy hat. You celebrated racism by getting some burlap, wrapping it around a cross, setting it ablaze and dancing around it carrying torches. Sometimes, as did Lester Maddox, you had to buy axe handles for yourself and your supporters to wield to forcibly turn away black customers from your restaurant. Or, as in the case of Theophilus "Bull" Connor, you had to learn to direct fire hoses and vicious police attack dogs against civil rights demonstrators.</p> <p>Younger racists, along with their parents, had to memorize poems for whenever a black student showed up for admission to their high school or college. For example, "Two, four, six, eight, we don't want to integrate!" Of course, there were a host of racial slurs and epithets that could be hurled, with impunity, at any black person in your presence. In earlier times, you didn't have to be sophisticated, but it took a bit of work, to be a racist.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 31, 2019</p> b8ea9061d505e110ca7b0d95a5dda180 What's Most Important? for 07/24/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/19/whats-most-important Wed, 24 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Let's think about priorities. Say that you live in one of the dangerous high crime and poor schooling neighborhoods of cities like Chicago, Baltimore, Detroit or St. Louis. Which is most important to you: doing something about public safety and raising the quality of education or, as most black politicians do, focusing energies upon President Donald Trump and who among the 20 presidential contenders will lead the Democratic Party? The average American has no inkling about the horrible conditions in which many blacks live. Moreover, they wouldn't begin to tolerate living under those conditions themselves.</p> <p>In Chicago, one person is shot every four hours and murdered every 18 hours. Similar crime statistics can be found in many predominantly black neighborhoods in Baltimore, Detroit, St. Louis and many other large cities. It's not just an issue of public safety, for high crime has other devastating consequences. <p>Updated: Wed Jul 24, 2019</p> 42cc42af2a3c8220a92d98e891da570e Things Haven't Always Been This Way for 07/17/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/19/things-havent-always-been-this-way Wed, 17 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Here's a suggestion. How about setting up some high school rifle clubs? Students would bring their own rifles to school, store them with the team coach and, after classes, collect them for practice. You say: "Williams, you must be crazy! To prevent gun violence, we must do all we can to keep guns out of the hands of kids." </p> <p>There's a problem with this reasoning. Prior to the 1960s, many public high schools had shooting clubs. In New York City, shooting clubs were started at Boys, Curtis, Commercial, Manual Training and Stuyvesant high schools. Students carried their rifles to school on the subway and turned them over to their homeroom or gym teacher. Rifles were retrieved after school for target practice. In some rural areas across the nation, there was a long tradition of high school students hunting before classes and storing their rifles in the trunks of their cars, parked on school grounds, during the school day.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 17, 2019</p> 29cfe73521cb5eda06f98b7bed408b1c Our Free Speech Crisis for 07/10/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/19/our-free-speech-crisis Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The First Amendment to our Constitution was proposed by the 1788 Virginia ratification convention during its narrow 89 to 79 vote to ratify the Constitution. Virginia's resolution held that the free exercise of religion, right to assembly and free speech could not be canceled, abridged or restrained. These Madisonian principles were eventually ratified by the states on March 1, 1792. </p> <p>Gettysburg College professor Allen C. Guelzo, in his article "Free Speech and Its Present Crisis," appearing in the autumn 2018 edition of City Journal, explores the trials and tribulations associated with the First Amendment. The early attempts to suppress free speech were signed into law by President John Adams and became known as the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. Later attempts to suppress free speech came during the Civil War, when President Abraham Lincoln and his generals attacked newspapers and suspended habeas corpus. It wasn't until 1919, in the case of Abrams v. United States, when the U.S. Supreme Court finally and unambiguously prohibited any kind of censorship.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 10, 2019</p> 1a4df36f2daea0a4b0590fc964ac1bb4 Assault on Western Civilization for 07/03/2019 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/19/assault-on-western-civilization Wed, 03 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Western civilization was founded on a set of philosophies that focus strongly on the sanctity of individuals and their power of logic and reason. This belief led to a desire to trust things that could be proven to be true or legitimate, from government to science. Judeo-Christian morality has formed the basis of most Western notions of ethics and behavioral standards. Thus, the attack on Western civilization must begin with the attack on the church and Christian values, and, just as important, the family unit must be undermined. The reason why the church, Christian values and family are targets of the left is they want people's loyalty and allegiance to be to the state. The church, Christianity and the family stand in the way. Let's look at some of the left's agenda.</p> <p>Joe Biden, criticizing sexual assault, said, "This is English jurisprudential culture, a white man's culture," adding, "It's got to change." The Western world's culture isn't perfect but women fare better under it than any other culture. Just ask yourself: If you're a feminist, in which countries would you like to live? Would it be Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, China or countries on the African continent, north or south of the Sahara? In those countries, women encounter all kinds of liberty restrictions plus in at least 30 countries on the African continent, the Middle East and Southeast Asia, female genital mutilation is practiced. You might ask Joe Biden what part of the "white man's culture" needs to be changed.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 03, 2019</p>