Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams Creators Syndicate is an international syndication company that represents cartoonists and columnists of the highest caliber. en Mon, 27 Feb 2017 07:17:55 -0800 https://www.creators.com/ http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://cdn.creators.com/features/walter-e-williams-thumb.jpg https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams 5358d4c0b9632c11ef4cee3d8392707a There's Nothing Free for 02/22/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/02/17/theres-nothing-free Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>It was Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman who made famous the adage, "There's no such thing as a free lunch." Professor Friedman could have added that there is a difference between something's being free and something's having a zero price. For example, people say that there's free public education and there are free libraries, but public education and libraries cost money. Proof that they have costs is the fact that somebody has to have less of something by giving up tax money so that schools and libraries can be produced and operated. A much more accurate statement is that we have zero-price public education and libraries.</p> <p>Costs can be concealed but not eliminated. If people ignore costs and look only to benefits, they will do darn near anything, because everything has a benefit. Politicians love the fact that costs can easily be concealed. The call for import restrictions, in the name of saving jobs, is politically popular in some quarters. But few talk about the costs. We know there are costs because nothing is free.<p>Updated: Wed Feb 22, 2017</p> 403e74e5cb3250dfd61f5df1c2b595c8 Pawns of Liberals for 02/15/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/02/17/pawns-of-liberals Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>Ordinary black people cannot afford to go along with the liberal agenda that calls for undermining police authority. That agenda makes for more black crime victims. Let's look at what works and what doesn't work.</p> <p>In 1990, New York City adopted the practice in which its police officers might stop and question a pedestrian. If there was suspicion, they would frisk the person for weapons and other contraband. This practice, well within the law, is known as a Terry stop. After two decades of this proactive police program, New York City's homicides fell from over 2,200 per year to about 300. Blacks were the major beneficiaries of proactive policing. According to Manhattan Institute scholar Heather Mac Donald &#8212; author of "The War on Cops" &#8212; seeing as black males are the majority of New York City's homicide victims, more than 10,000 blacks are alive today who would not be had it not been for proactive policing.<p>Updated: Wed Feb 15, 2017</p> c0e575a4e0066e9afe3b03c9a6412287 Minimum Wage and Discrimination for 02/08/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/02/17/minimum-wage-and-discrimination Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>There is little question in most academic research that increases in the minimum wage lead to increases in unemployment. The debatable issue is the magnitude of the increase. An issue not often included in minimum wage debates is the substitution effects of minimum wage increases. The substitution effect might explain why Business for a Fair Minimum Wage, a national network of business owners and executives, argues for higher minimum wages. Let's look at substitution effects in general.</p> <p><span class="column--highlighted-text">When the price of anything rises, people seek substitutes and measures to economize.</span> When gasoline prices rise, people seek to economize on the usage of gas by buying smaller cars. If the price of sugar rises, people seek cheaper sugar substitutes. If prices of goods in one store rise, people search for other stores. This last example helps explain why some businessmen support higher minimum wages. If they could impose higher labor costs on their less efficient competition, it might help drive them out of business. That would enable firms that survive to charge higher prices and earn greater profits.<p>Updated: Wed Feb 08, 2017</p> a9cd56a8970b46ee002777ed95fef557 Lower Conduct Standards for Liberals for 02/01/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/01/17/lower-conduct-standards-for-liberals Wed, 01 Feb 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>One can only imagine the widespread media, political and intellectual condemnation of Republicans and conservatives if, after the inauguration of Barack Obama, they had gone on a violent and vicious tear all over the nation as did Democrats and liberals after the inauguration of President Donald Trump. They committed acts such as assaulting Trump supporters, setting fires and stoning police. Suppose Republicans/conservatives had carried signs that read "F&#8212;- Obama" or talked about "blowing up the White House." The news media, instead of calling them protesters, would have labeled them evil racists, obstructionists and everything else except a child of God. The reason for the difference in treatment is simple. Republicans and conservatives are held &#8212; and hold themselves &#8212; to higher standards of behavior. By contrast, Democrats and liberals are held &#8212; and hold themselves &#8212; to less civilized standards of behavior. Let's look at some of the history of conservative and liberal behavior.</p> <p>One of the nastiest more recent liberal events was the Occupy movement around the nation. During Occupy protests, there were rapes, assaults, robberies and holdups. These people publicly defecated and urinated on police cars. The mess they left after their demonstrations can be described as no more than a pigsty. Does anybody recall any Democratic official, from the president on down, admonishing them to behave? Contrast their behavior with that of tea party protesters. Tea partyers didn't set fires, stone police or engage in the other kinds of despicable behavior the liberal Democrats did. On top of that, they left the areas where they protested clean.<p>Updated: Wed Feb 01, 2017</p> b4a81b7c9e33691a0fffa3401d4f4145 Universities Cave to Snowflakes for 01/25/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/01/17/universities-cave-to-snowflakes Wed, 25 Jan 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>One wonders just how far spineless college administrators will go when it comes to caving in to the demands of campus snowflakes. For those unfamiliar with the term "snowflakes," it is increasingly being used to characterize college students easily traumatized by criticism and politically incorrect phrases. <span class="column--highlighted-text">They demand safe spaces and trigger warnings so as not to be upset by views that challenge their own. Snowflakes feel as though they must be protected against words, events and deeds that do not fully conform to their extremely limited, narrow-minded beliefs built on sheer delusion.</span> This might explain their behavior in the wake of Donald Trump's trouncing of Hillary Clinton.</p> <p>Generosity demands that we forgive these precious snowflakes and hope that they grow up. The real problem is with people assumed to be grown-ups &#8212; college professors and administrators who tolerate and give aid and comfort to our aberrant youth. Let's look at tiny samples of it.<p>Updated: Wed Jan 25, 2017</p> 4d54bfd6806c68c2c03048aab79e307b International Trade Thuggery for 01/18/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/01/17/international-trade-thuggery Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>President-elect Donald Trump's threats against American companies looking to relocate in foreign countries have won favorable review from many quarters. Support comes from those alarmed about trade deficits, those who want a "level playing field" and those who call for "free trade but fair trade," whatever that means.</p> <p>Some American companies relocate in foreign lands because costs are lower and hence their profits are higher. Lower labor costs are not the only reason companies move to other countries.<p>Updated: Wed Jan 18, 2017</p> e97790b506518c9583abf24ab34dad14 The Black Community and Crime for 01/11/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/01/17/the-black-community-and-crime Wed, 11 Jan 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>The FBI reported that the total number of homicides in 2015 was 15,696. Blacks were about 52 percent of homicide victims. That means about 8,100 black lives were ended violently, and over 90 percent of the time, the perpetrator was another black. Listening to the news media and the Black Lives Matter movement, one would think that black deaths at the hands of police are the major problem. It turns out that in 2015, police across the nation shot and killed 986 people. Of that number, 495 were white (50 percent), 258 were black (26 percent) and 172 Hispanic (17 percent). A study of 2,699 fatal police killings between 2013 and 2015, conducted by John R. Lott Jr. and Carlisle E. Moody of the Crime Prevention Research Center, demonstrates that the odds of a black suspect's being killed by a black police officer were consistently greater than a black suspect's getting killed by a white officer. Politicians, race hustlers and the news media keep such studies under wraps because these studies don't help their narrative about racist cops.</p> <p>The homicide victim is not the only victim, whether he is a criminal or not, for there are mourning loved ones. No one ever fully recovers from having a son, daughter, husband, mother or father murdered. Murder is not the only crime that takes a heavy toll on the black community. Blacks are disproportionately represented as victims in every category of violent crime &#8212; e.g., forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault.<p>Updated: Wed Jan 11, 2017</p> 3d77ba4e166c324ff912fcdd7dd45b1d Liberal Struggle Against Reality for 01/04/2017 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/01/17/liberal-struggle-against-reality Wed, 04 Jan 2017 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>We will never understand liberals and progressives until we recognize that they often see reality as a social construct subject to being challenged and changed. For example, throughout the world, boys and girls have different toy preferences. Typically, boys like to play with cars and trucks, whereas girls prefer dolls. Liberals explain this with the assertion that boys and girls are socialized and encouraged to play with different types of toys by their parents, peers and "society." Growing scientific evidence suggests that toy preferences have a biological origin. Even studies of male and female primates find that they exhibit similar toy preferences. Despite the growing evidence of biological determinism, liberals have managed to intimidate toy sellers into getting rid of the labels "toys for boys" and "toys for girls."</p> <p>Another reality issue that's extremely annoying to liberals and progressives is chromosomal sex determination. The XX/XY sex determination system is found in humans. Females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome (XX), whereas males have two distinct sex chromosomes (XY). This chromosomal reality is seen as limiting, annoying and an artifact of a patriarchal, chauvinistic society. So liberals and progressives want to change it. Say you are an XY (male) individual but would like to conduct your affairs in a facility designated for XX (female) individuals, such as a ladies' room. You can satisfy your desire by claiming that you are transgender &#8212; that is, you've switched from one gender to another. Therefore, if one has XY chromosomes, he can behave as if he were an XXer. Plus, there is the expectation of being addressed according to one's chosen gender. The Minneapolis Police Department has a new rule that requires officers to address transgender people using their preferred names and pronouns. When an XYer is arrested but claims he is a woman, I wonder whether the police will place him in a cell with XXers. Just how far the Minneapolis authorities will go is in question; maybe they, too, believe that reality is optional.<p>Updated: Wed Jan 04, 2017</p> 534b00e5bcb5a9144a89eaf4dd83aab2 Wealth, Poverty and Politics for 12/28/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/12/16/wealth-poverty-and-politics-6facb Wed, 28 Dec 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>Thomas Sowell has just published a revised and enlarged edition of his classic "Wealth, Poverty and Politics." At the very beginning, he quotes Alexander Hamilton, who said, "The wealth of nations depends upon an infinite variety of causes." <span class="column--highlighted-text">The book's 16 chapters apply Hamilton's notion to domestic, as well as international, differences in wealth. In both academic and popular literature, it is implicitly assumed that economic equality is natural, automatic and common. Thus, people see wealth inequality as a mystery that must be explained. The fact of the matter is precisely the opposite.</span></p> <p>The ancient Greeks had geometry, philosophy, architecture and literature at a time when Britain was a land of illiterate tribal people living at a primitive level. Of course, by the end of the 19th century, Britain was far ahead of the Greeks and ultimately controlled one-quarter of the planet's land. Such historic reversals have occurred elsewhere. The ancient Chinese were far ahead of Europeans, but by the 19th century, the relative positions of the Chinese and Europeans were reversed. Just these two examples prove that the same people are not always on top.<p>Updated: Wed Dec 28, 2016</p> 85b83d61c4ae71fbefc800922ddf4201 Inclusiveness and Diversity for 12/21/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/12/16/inclusiveness-and-diversity Wed, 21 Dec 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>Sometimes it seems as if every other word from the mouths of academicians is "inclusiveness" or "diversity." How sincere and truthful are these people about their "inclusiveness and diversity" religion?</p> <p>Suppose a group of engineering students do not want to include black or Mexican students in their study group. Should they be permitted to have freedom of association or restrained from freely associating? The true test of one's commitment to freedom of association does not come when he permits people to be free to associate in those voluntary ways he deems appropriate. The true test comes when he permits people to associate in ways he deems offensive. I suspect that most academics believe that people should be permitted to associate only in ways they deem appropriate. This is no less than totalitarianism.<p>Updated: Wed Dec 21, 2016</p> d8fd09a3b93dec4450ea5436f6bc46a7 Please, No More Miracles for 12/14/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/12/16/please-no-more-miracles Wed, 14 Dec 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>President-elect Donald Trump has warned companies that they are not going to leave the United States anymore "without consequences." He has lived up to his threat by pressuring Carrier to give up its planned move to Monterrey, Mexico, in exchange for a taxpayer handout. It is a safe bet that other U.S. companies will be descending on Washington looking for handouts in the name of "fair trade" and "leveling the playing field."</p> <p>Part of Carrier's problem is the congressional miracle created for the U.S. metal industry. Import restrictions placed on steel, copper tubing and aluminum extrusions benefit American producers of those products. Not having to worry about foreign steel, copper tubing and aluminum extrusions, American producers of those products can charge higher prices and maintain higher employment. The real cost of import restrictions is the harm they do to steel-, copper- and aluminum-using manufacturers. Companies can escape some of those U.S. government-imposed costs simply by moving across the border.<p>Updated: Wed Dec 14, 2016</p> 0ee9c6f3a5102069dd2ff65f924bd9b6 Majority Rule Equals Tyranny for 12/07/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/12/16/majority-rule-equals-tyranny Wed, 07 Dec 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>It is alleged that Hillary Clinton won a popular vote majority. Therefore, if the nation were not burdened with the antiquated Electoral College, anguished and freaked-out Americans whine, she, instead of Donald Trump, would be the next president of the United States. You say, "Hold it. Before you go further, Williams, what do you mean it is alleged that Clinton received most of the popular vote? It's a fact." I say "alleged" because according to Gregg Phillips of True the Vote, an estimated 3 million noncitizens voted. Presumably, those votes went to Clinton.</p> <p>In 2000, Al Gore won the popular vote just as Hillary Clinton allegedly did. Such outcomes have led to calls to abandon the Constitution's Article 2 provision for the state electors to select presidents. Despite the fact that the system has served us well for over 200 years, many Americans now call for its abandonment in favor of electing presidents by popular vote. Before we abandon the Electoral College, let's consider the function it performs.<p>Updated: Wed Dec 07, 2016</p> 577e18cc7452cb8327745707390c4a25 Let's Fight Tyranny for 11/30/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/16/lets-fight-tyranny Wed, 30 Nov 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>For more than a half-century, it has become abundantly clear that our nation faces increasing irreconcilable differences. At the root is the fact that there is one group of Americans who mostly want to be left alone and live according to the rule of law and the dictates of the U.S. Constitution while another group of Americans wants to control the lives of others and ignore both the rule of law and constitutional restraints on the federal government. Should those Americans who favor the rule of law and constitutional government fight against or yield to those Americans who have contempt for the rule of law and constitutional government? Let's look at a few of those irreconcilable differences.</p> <p>Some Americans prefer to manage their own health care needs. Others wish to have the federal government dictate their health care. Some Americans want their earnings to be taxed only for the constitutionally mandated functions of the federal government, which are outlined in Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution. Others think American earnings should be taxed for anything on which Congress can muster a majority vote. Though there is no constitutional authority for federal involvement in public education, some Americans want the federal government involved. The list of irreconcilable differences among the American people is nearly without end. These differences survive because of the timidity of those offended and the brute power of the federal government.<p>Updated: Wed Nov 30, 2016</p> c42443e8f2e6e96842cac84f75134a99 Trump and College Chaos for 11/23/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/16/trump-and-college-chaos Wed, 23 Nov 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>If one needed more evidence of the steep decay in academia, Donald Trump's victory provided it. Let's begin by examining the responses to his win, not only among our wet-behind-the-ears college students, many of whom act like kindergarteners, but also among college professors and administrators.</p> <p>The University of Michigan's distressed students were provided with Play-Doh and coloring books, as they sought comfort and distraction. A University of Michigan professor postponed an exam after many students complained about their "serious stress" over the election results. Cornell University held a campuswide "cry-in," with officials handing out tissues and hot chocolate. One Cornell student said, "I'm looking into flights back to Bangladesh right now so I can remove myself before Trump repatriates me." The College Fix reported that "a dorm at the University of Pennsylvania ... hosted a post-election 'Breathing Space' for students stressed out by election results that included cuddling with cats and a puppy, coloring and crafting, and snacks such as tea and chocolate."<p>Updated: Wed Nov 23, 2016</p> 2f05ac6f6c6d1ee30653546a022aab08 Blacks and Politicians for 11/16/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/16/blacks-and-politicians Wed, 16 Nov 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p></p><p>Donald Trump's surprise win has millions of Americans, many of whom are black, in a tizzy. <span class="column--highlighted-text">Many, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, are writing about what it means to be black during a Trump administration even though Trump's presidency has yet to begin. My argument has always been that the political arena is largely irrelevant to the interests of ordinary black people.</span><p>Updated: Wed Nov 16, 2016</p> e291734bb5c28784b35244c520f82f28 Rules of the Game for 11/07/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/11/16/rules-of-the-game Mon, 07 Nov 2016 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>The underpinnings of a decent society are neutral laws &#8212; laws that favor no particular individual or group &#8212; and the impartial enforcement of those laws. The U.S. Supreme Court's job is to ensure the impartial enforcement of our laws. But our two presidential candidates differ in their visions of court appointees. Hillary Clinton says that she would "look broadly and widely for people who represent the diversity of our country" and that "we need a Supreme Court that will stand up on behalf of women's rights (and) on behalf of the rights of the LGBT community." In contrast, Donald Trump says, "I will appoint justices who, like Justice (Antonin) Scalia, will protect our liberty with the highest regard for the Constitution." <span class="column--highlighted-text">Limited government and rule of law are conflict-reducing, whereas diversity-oriented justices who stand up for the rights of particular individuals are conflict-enhancing.</span> Let's look at a simple example of the benefit of neutral rules and their impartial enforcement.</p> <p>Football teams spend four quarters battling each other. After the conflict, players and coaches shake hands and often hug one another. Their competitive struggle ends peacefully, as well as on friendly terms, because the referees, whom we can think of as justices, enforce neutral rules impartially. There would be a different outcome if referees exercised compassion instead of impartial rule enforcement. Let's be specific.<p>Updated: Mon Nov 07, 2016</p> 0a96ed0cece03e2b6de1dddba34de3bb The Rich and Us for 11/02/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/16/the-rich-and-us Wed, 02 Nov 2016 00:00:00 -0700 <p>Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates, having a net worth of $81.8 billion, and Amazon.com CEO Jeff Bezos, having a net worth of $70.4 billion, are the nation's two richest men. They are at the top of the Forbes 400 list of America's superrich individuals, people who have net worths of billions of dollars. Many see the rich as a danger. New York Times columnist Bob Herbert wrote, "It doesn't really matter what ordinary people want. The wealthy call the tune, and the politicians dance." His colleague Paul Krugman wrote, "On paper, we're a one-person-one-vote nation; in reality, we're more than a bit of an oligarchy, in which a handful of wealthy people dominate." It's sentiments like these that have led me to wish there were a humane way to get rid of the rich. For without having the rich around to be whipping boys and distract our attention, we might be able to concentrate on what's best for the 99.9 percent of the rest of us.</p> <p>Let's look at the power of the rich. With all the money that Gates, Bezos and other superrich people have, what can they force you or me to do? Can they condemn our houses to create space so that another individual can build an auto dealership or a casino parking lot? Can they force us to pay money into the government-run &#8212; and doomed &#8212; Obamacare program? Can they force us to bus our children to schools out of our neighborhood in the name of diversity? Can they force us to buy our sugar from a high-cost domestic producer rather than from a low-cost Caribbean producer? The answer to all of these questions is a big fat no.</p> <p>You say, "Williams, I don't understand." Let me be more explicit. Bill Gates cannot order you to enroll your child in another school in order to promote racial diversity. He has no power to condemn your house to make way for a casino parking lot. Unless our elected public officials grant them the power to rip us off, rich people have little power to force us to do anything. A lowly municipal clerk earning $50,000 a year has far more life-and-death power over us. It is that type of person to whom we must turn for permission to build a house, ply a trade, open a restaurant and do myriad other activities. It's government people, not rich people, who have the power to coerce us and rip us off. They have the power to make our lives miserable if we disobey. This coercive power goes a long way toward explaining legalized political corruption.<p>Updated: Wed Nov 02, 2016</p> 84ac404399ed84d6a2127eb0c336280d Dumb American Youth for 10/26/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/16/dumb-american-youth Wed, 26 Oct 2016 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Do you wonder why Sen. Bernie Sanders and his ideas are so popular among American college students? The answer is that <span class="column--highlighted-text">they, like so many other young people who think they know it all, are really uninformed and ignorant. You say, "Williams, how dare you say that?! We've mortgaged our home to send our children to college."</span> Let's start with the 2006 geographic literacy survey of youngsters between 18 and 24 years of age by National Geographic and Roper Public Affairs.</p> <p>Less than half could identify New York and Ohio on a U.S. map. Sixty percent could not find Iraq or Saudi Arabia on a map of the Middle East, and three-quarters could not find Iran or Israel. In fact, 44 percent could not locate even one of those four countries. Youngsters who had taken a geography class didn't fare much better. By the way, when I attended elementary school, during the 1940s, we were given blank U.S. maps, and our assignment was to write in the states. Today such an assignment might be deemed oppressive, if not racist.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 26, 2016</p> 96aa13aae372fd0bf013553a785fa50c Freedom to Work for 10/19/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/16/freedom-to-work Wed, 19 Oct 2016 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>If a person wants to go into business as a taxicab owner, what requirements should be imposed to protect the public? The prospective taxicab owner should show that he is honest and can operate a vehicle safely. His vehicle should pass a safety inspection, and he should have a liability insurance policy. Some cities require the purchase of an existing license, sometimes called a medallion. A medallion has cost as much as over $1 million, as in the case of New York City, and the cost has reached $700,000 in Boston and $360,000 in Chicago. <span class="column--highlighted-text">There is no public protection interest served by forcing a person to go into debt to purchase a taxi medallion, but doing so does serve an interest.</span></p> <p>Before we talk about that, let's look at some good news for prospective taxi owners. The Arlington, Virginia-based Institute for Justice is a nonprofit libertarian public interest law firm that has been on the forefront in the fight for economic liberty for 2 1/2 decades. During that time period, it has piled up numerous victories. The most recent is its Oct. 7 win in the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, which issued two groundbreaking decisions that will help cities to sweep aside protectionist transportation regulations in order to make way for new entrepreneurs.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 19, 2016</p> ae3706f7ba29ef12e644a4c2fc241240 A Constitutional Right to Literacy for 10/12/2016 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/10/16/a-constitutional-right-to-literacy Wed, 12 Oct 2016 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Detroit school students, represented by the Los Angeles-based public interest firm Public Counsel, filed suit last month against the state of Michigan, claiming a legal right to literacy based on the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. Ninety-three percent of Detroit's predominantly black public school eighth-graders are not proficient in reading, and 96 percent are not proficient in mathematics. According to the lawsuit, "decades of State disinvestment in and deliberate indifference to Detroit schools have denied Plaintiff schoolchildren access to the most basic building block of education: literacy."</p> <p>In terms of per-pupil expenditures, the state does not treat Detroit public school students any differently than it does other students. According to the Michigan Department of Education, the Detroit school district ranks 50th in state spending, at $13,743 per pupil. This is out of 841 total districts. That puts Detroit schools in the top 6 percent of per-pupil expenditures in the state. <span class="column--highlighted-text">Discrimination in school expenditures cannot explain poor educational outcomes for black students in Detroit or anywhere else in the nation.</span> Let's look at routinely ignored educational impediments in Detroit and elsewhere.<p>Updated: Wed Oct 12, 2016</p>