Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams Creators Syndicate is an international syndication company that represents cartoonists and columnists of the highest caliber. en Mon, 06 Jul 2020 16:29:03 -0700 https://www.creators.com/ http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss Walter E. Williams from Creators Syndicate https://cdn.creators.com/features/walter-e-williams-thumb.jpg https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams 470758d2d8419b3e7efe9f54a8e38b82 Charter Schools and Their Enemies for 07/08/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/07/20/charter-schools-and-their-enemies Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Dr. Thomas Sowell has just published "Charter Schools and Their Enemies." He presents actual test scores of students in traditional public schools and charter schools on New York State Education Department's annual English Language Arts test and its Mathematics Test. Sowell gives the results of student tests in charter schools such as KIPP, Success Academy, Explore Schools, Uncommon Schools, Achievement First as well as the traditional New York City public schools. On the English Language Arts test, a majority of charter school students, most of whom were black or Hispanic, tested proficient or above. Their achievement ratio was nearly 5 to 1. On the Mathematics test 68% of charter schools' 161 grade levels had a majority of students testing proficient. In the traditional public schools, 177 grade levels, just 10% had a majority of their student testing proficient.</p> <p>In April 2019, The Wall Street Journal reported that 57% of black and 54% of Hispanic charter school students passed the statewide ELA compared to 52% of white students statewide. On the state math test, 59% of black students and 57% of Hispanics at city charter schools passed as opposed to 54% of white students statewide.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 08, 2020</p> 9703bd6d154754f6916843383d8d1e00 An Underappreciated American Scholar for 07/01/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/20/an-underappreciated-american-scholar Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Dr. Thomas Sowell has been both a friend and a colleague of mine for over a half-century. On June 30, he will have completed his 90th year of life, and I want to highlight some important features of that life. Sowell was born in Gastonia, North Carolina, in 1930. As part of the great black migration northward during the 1930s and '40s, he and his family moved to Harlem, New York. Sowell attended the prestigious Stuyvesant High School but dropped out. In 1951, he was drafted into the military and assigned to the U.S. Marine Corps where he became a photographer. Photography remains his hobby today.</p> <p>After his military tour of duty, Sowell took night classes at Howard University where he was encouraged to apply to Harvard University. He earned a bachelor's degree in economics and graduated magna cum laude in 1958. The next year, he earned a master's degree from Columbia University. Ten years later, Sowell earned a Ph.D. in economics, from the prestigious economics department at the University of Chicago. As Sowell explains in his autobiography, "A Personal Odyssey," for most of his time in college, he considered himself a Marxist. After studying the effects of a variety of government regulations such as the minimum wage law, Sowell concluded that free markets are the best alternative, particularly for disadvantaged people.<p>Updated: Wed Jul 01, 2020</p> a9f4ad3e1a71a7809cb4f4e5f73817da Insults to Black History for 06/24/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/20/insults-to-black-history Wed, 24 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Many whites are ashamed, saddened and feel guilty about our history of slavery, Jim Crow and gross racial discrimination. Many black people remain angry over the injustices of the past and what they see as injustices of the present. Both blacks and whites can benefit from a better appreciation of black history.</p> <p>Often overlooked or ignored is the fact that, as a group, black Americans have made the greatest gains, over some of the highest hurdles, and in a shorter span of time than any other racial group in history. <p>Updated: Wed Jun 24, 2020</p> c503815dc207db44083c22cdc9b4cd64 Now What? for 06/17/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/20/now-what Wed, 17 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>No decent person can support George Floyd's mistreatment, or the mistreatment of anyone else, at the hands of police officers with the sworn duty to uphold the law. The Minneapolis authorities moved quickly, and Derek Chauvin was fired from the Minneapolis police department, placed under arrest and charged with second-degree murder and other charges. The three officers who were with him were also fired and charged two counts of aiding and abetting &#8212; one for second-degree murder and one for second-degree manslaughter.</p> <p>Peaceful protest in any cause is as American as apple pie, but what we saw in the wake of George Floyd's murder is as despicable as anything recently seen in our nation. What makes it worse is the silence and seemly support in many quarters for anarchists who have highjacked the protests to promote their own ends. These are the white liberals and leftists groups like Antifa who could care less about the major problems that exist in black communities and made worse by the rioting and looting.<p>Updated: Wed Jun 17, 2020</p> b5d896180fecc851f16fb5a4285e021e The True Plight of Black Americans for 06/10/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/20/the-true-plight-of-black-americans Wed, 10 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>While it might not be popular to say in the wake of the recent social disorder, the true plight of black people has little or nothing to do with the police or what has been called "systemic racism." Instead, we need to look at the responsibilities of those running our big cities.</p> <p>Some of the most dangerous big cities are: St. Louis, Detroit, Baltimore, Oakland, Chicago, Memphis, Atlanta, Birmingham, Newark, Buffalo and Philadelphia. The most common characteristic of these cities is that for decades, all of them have been run by liberal Democrats. Some cities &#8212; such as Detroit, Buffalo, Newark and Philadelphia &#8212; haven't elected a Republican mayor for more than a half-century. On top of this, in many of these cities, blacks are mayors, often they dominate city councils, and they are chiefs of police and superintendents of schools.<p>Updated: Wed Jun 10, 2020</p> 45a1995b7995c66e8e2d362c1f5d9274 Some Facts Worth Knowing for 06/03/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/06/20/some-facts-worth-knowing Wed, 03 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Imagine that you are an unborn spirit in heaven. God condemns you to a life of poverty but will permit you to choose the country in which you will spend your life. Which country would you choose? I would choose the United States of America.</p> <p>A recent study by Just Facts, an excellent source of factual information, shows that after accounting for income, charity and noncash welfare benefits such as subsidized health care, housing, food stamps and other assistance programs, "the poorest 20% of Americans consume more goods and services than the national averages for all people in the world's most affluent countries." This includes the majority of countries that are members of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, including its European members. The Just Facts study concludes that if the U.S. "poor" were a nation, then it would be one of the world's richest. <p>Updated: Wed Jun 03, 2020</p> fb3cdee009bfb593a45c2684f4583c2f Insane News Tidbits for 05/27/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/05/20/insane-news-tidbits Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Is it important to have racial or sexual diversity in our fight against the COVID-19 pandemic? Heather Mac Donald suggests that some think it might be in her City Journal article "Should Identity Politics Dictate Vaccine Research?" The funding priorities of the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control suggests that they think diversity is an important input in making headway in the fight against the coronavirus. On April 20, NIH and CDC announced the availability of grants to increase the "diversity" of biomedical research labs. For example, academic virology researchers studying respiratory failure could receive hundreds of thousands more taxpayer dollars if they could find a woman or a minority to add to their project. High school students and college students are eligible for the program even though they cannot contribute anything of value. No scientific justification for the new diversity hire is needed. The scientists must promise to mentor the new hire, which will take time away from their research with no offsetting gain.</p> <p>Mac Donald has written another article on academic insanity "The Therapeutic Campus" bearing the subtitle: "Why are college students seeking mental-health services in record numbers?" Many colleges have created safe spaces where students can be sheltered from reality and not have their feelings hurt by others exercising their free speech rights. Yale University has created a safe space that would be the envy of most other universities. They have named it the Good Life Center. Mac Donald says it has "a sandbox, essential oils, massage, and mental-health workshops," and that "the center unites the most powerful forces in higher education today: the feminization of the university, therapeutic culture, identity politics, and the vast student-services bureaucracy."<p>Updated: Wed May 27, 2020</p> 9b93b97d8d1a89c80ee8be731437eeb9 Rotten Education Isn't Preordained for 05/20/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/05/20/rotten-education-isnt-preordained Wed, 20 May 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Black politicians, civil rights leaders and their white liberal advocates have little or no interest in doing anything effective to deal with what's no less than an education crisis among black students. In city after city with large black populations, such as Baltimore, St. Louis, Detroit, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C., less than 10% of students test proficient in reading and math. For example, in 2016, in 13 Baltimore high schools, not a single student tested proficient in math. In six other high schools, only 1% tested proficient in math. Citywide, only 15% of Baltimore students passed the state's English test. Despite these academic deficiencies, about 70% of the students graduate and are conferred a high school diploma. </p> <p>Ballou High School is in Washington, D.C. Five percent of its students test proficient in reading and 1% test proficient in math. In 2017, all 189 students in Ballou High School's senior class applied to college. All 189 members of the graduating class of 2017 were accepted to universities. In November 2017, an investigation showed that half of Ballou's 2017 graduates had more than three months of unexcused absences. One in five of the graduating class was absent more than present, therefore missing more than 90 days of school.<p>Updated: Wed May 20, 2020</p> 7feaf6a6b05b7cdbb0862a5512d616fa Let's Not Waste a Crisis for 05/13/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/05/20/lets-not-waste-a-crisis Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Former Barack Obama adviser Rahm Emanuel, during a recent interview, reminded us of his 2008 financial crisis quotation, "Never allow a crisis to go to waste." The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a wonderful opportunity for those of us who want greater control over our lives. Sadly, too many Americans have already taken the bait. We've allowed politicians and bureaucrats to dictate to us what's an essential business and what isn't, who has access to hospitals and who hasn't, and a host of minor and major dictates.</p> <p>Leftist politicians who want to get into our pocketbooks are beginning to argue that the COVID-19 pandemic is the best argument for a wealth tax. Let's first define a wealth tax. A wealth tax is applicable to and levied on a variety of accumulated assets that include cash, money market funds, real property, trust funds, owner-occupied housing and other wealth accumulations. Assume a taxpayer earns $150,000 a year and falls in the 32% tax bracket. That individual's income tax liability for the year will be 32% x $150,000 or $48,800. Say the taxpayer has a net worth of $500,000 consisting of a business or home and the government imposes a wealth tax of 32%, the person's tax liability is $160,000.<p>Updated: Wed May 13, 2020</p> f6c2ab81d61438f38311044bbdf06258 The Nation's Report Card for 05/06/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/05/20/the-nations-report-card Wed, 06 May 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>The Department of Education just released results of the quadrennial National Assessment of Educational Progress tests in U.S. history, civics and geography given in 2018 to thousands of American eighth-graders: "Grade 8 Students' NAEP Scores Decline in Geography and U.S. History; Results in Civics Unchanged Since 2014." </p> <p>The tests were administered from January to March 2018 to a nationally representative sample of 42,700 eighth-graders from about 780 schools. The news is not very good. Only 24% of students performed at or above the "proficient" level in civics. Worse yet, only 15% scored proficient or above in American history and 25% were proficient in geography. At least 25% of America's eighth-graders are what NAEP defines as "below basic" in U.S. history, civics and geography. That means they have no understanding of historical and civic issues and cannot point out basic locations on a map.<p>Updated: Wed May 06, 2020</p> 807ad416d5c726dc572d26c17753bca0 Today's Americans and Yesteryear's Americans for 04/29/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/04/20/todays-americans-and-yesteryears-americans Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Dr. Victor Davis Hanson is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, a military historian and a professor emeritus of classics at California State University, Fresno. He has written two articles relevant to today's society. Last October he published, "Members of Previous Generations Now Seem Like Giants," and he recently wrote, "Is America a Roaring Giant or Crying Baby?" </p> <p>In the first article, <span class="column--highlighted-text">Hanson starts with some observations and questions regarding the greatness of previous generations compared with today's Americans. </span>He asks: "Does anyone believe that contemporary Americans could build another transcontinental railroad in six years? ... America went to the moon in 1969 with supposedly primitive computers and backward engineering. Does anyone believe we could launch a similar moonshot today?" Hanson observes: "We have been fighting in Afghanistan without result for 18 years. Our forefathers helped to win World War II and defeat the Axis Powers in four years." Keep in mind that the Axis powers (Germany, Japan and Italy) had far greater firepower than the Afghan rebels that we've fought. Hanson also could have asked whether today's Americans could build a 1,700-mile road such as the ALCAN Highway, connecting the lower 48 states to Alaska, whose construction started in March 1942 and was completed in October that year.<p>Updated: Wed Apr 29, 2020</p> 2f9faaf2c5661fd46311e74b1ee1105d Benefits vs. Costs and COVID-19 for 04/22/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/04/20/benefits-vs-costs-and-covid-19 Wed, 22 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>One of the first lessons in an economics class is everything has a cost. That's in stark contrast to lessons in the political arena where politicians talk about free stuff. In our personal lives, decision-making involves weighing costs against benefits. Businessmen make the same calculation if they want to stay in business. It's an entirely different story for politicians running the government where any benefit, however minuscule, is often deemed to be worth any cost, however large.</p> <p>Related to decision-making is the issue of being overly safe versus not safe enough. Sometimes, being as safe as one can be is worthless. A minor example: How many of us before driving our cars inspect the hydraulic brake system for damage? We'd be safer if we did, but most of us just assume everything is OK and get into our car and drive away. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that 40,000 Americans lose their lives each year because of highway fatalities. Virtually all those lives could be saved with a mandated 5 mph speed limit. Fortunately, we consider costs and rightfully conclude that saving those 40,000 lives aren't worth the costs and inconvenience of a 5 mph mandate.<p>Updated: Wed Apr 22, 2020</p> 264ae9e205784cb4a12e77b138fa5656 Fixing College Corruption for 04/15/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/04/20/fixing-college-corruption Wed, 15 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>America's colleges are rife with corruption. The financial squeeze resulting from COVID-19 offers opportunities for a bit of remediation. Let's first let's examine what might be the root of academic corruption, suggested by the title of a recent study, "Academic Grievance Studies and the Corruption of Scholarship." The study was done by Areo, an opinion and analysis digital magazine. By the way, Areo is short for Areopagitica, a speech delivered by John Milton in defense of free speech.</p> <p>Authors Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay and Peter Boghossian say that something has gone drastically wrong in academia, especially within certain fields within the humanities. They call these fields "grievance studies," where scholarship is not so much based upon finding truth but upon attending to social grievances. Grievance scholars bully students, administrators and other departments into adhering to their worldview. The worldview they promote is neither scientific nor rigorous. Grievance studies consist of disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, gender studies, queer, sexuality and critical race studies.<p>Updated: Wed Apr 15, 2020</p> 5e9410fab010ee4c848fdf71e03ddf67 Manipulation Through Racial Hoaxes for 04/08/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/04/20/manipulation-through-racial-hoaxes Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p>We black people are so convenient and useful to America's leftists. Whenever there's a bit of silencing to be done, just accuse a detractor or critic of racism. A recent, particularly stupid, example is CNN's Brandon Tensley's complaint that the "Coronavirus task force is another example of Trump administration's lack of diversity." Tensley said the virus experts are "largely the same sorts of white men (and a couple women on the sidelines) who've dominated the Trump administration from the very beginning." I'd like for Tensley to tell us just what racial or sex diversity contribute to finding a cure or treatment for the coronavirus.</p> <p>Jesse Watters was criticized as a racist for claiming that the coronavirus outbreak was caused by Chinese people "eating raw bats and snakes." He added that "They are a very hungry people. The Chinese communist government cannot feed the people, and they are desperate. This food is uncooked, it is unsafe and that is why scientists believe that's where it originated from." Watter's statement can be settled by a bit of empiricism. Just find out whether Chinese people eat bats and snakes and whether that has anything to do with the spread of the coronavirus.</p> <p>It may be perplexing to some, but I believe that our nation has made great progress in matters of race, so much so that imaginary racism and racial hoaxes must be found. Left-wingers on college campuses and elsewhere have a difficult time finding the racism that they say permeates everything. So they're brazenly inventing it.<p>Updated: Wed Apr 08, 2020</p> e25469c6667e8ed0fb8c9c408310055e Managing a Disaster for 04/01/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/03/20/managing-a-disaster Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>I'm not sure whether COVID-19, first identified in Wuhan, China, in the U.S. qualifies as a true disaster. Putting the disease in perspective, we might look at current influenza illnesses. According to Centers for Disease Control estimates, between Oct. 1, 2019, and March 14, 2020, there have been 390,000 to 710,000 hospitalizations as a result of the flu, 38,000,000 to 54,000,000 flu illnesses and 23,000 to 59,000 flu deaths. That's compared with, as of March 27, a total of 85,356 cases of COVID-19 resulting in the deaths of 1,246 people.</p> <p>But let's agree that COVID-19 is a disaster and ask what the appropriate steps that are to deal with it. One of the first observations about any disaster is that the quantity demanded of many goods greatly exceeds the supply. There is a shortage. The natural market response when there is a shortage is for prices to rise. Rising prices produce several beneficial effects. They reduce the incentive for people to hoard while suppliers, motivated by the prospect of higher profits, are incentivized to produce more of the good in short supply.<p>Updated: Wed Apr 01, 2020</p> 08dc490dc2c2378a5f6b9518dda48044 Progressive Cities and Black Education for 03/25/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/03/20/progressive-cities-and-black-education Wed, 25 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>A recent report by Chris Stewart has shed new light on some of the educational problems faced by black youth. The report is titled "The Secret Shame: How America's Most Progressive Cities Betray Their Commitment to Educational Opportunity for All." Stewart is a self-described liberal and CEO of Brightbeam, a nonprofit network of education activists who want to hold progressive political leaders accountable.</p> <p>The report asks, "So how do we explain outstandingly poor educational results for minority children in San Francisco &#8212; which also happens to be one of the wealthiest cities in the country?" "The Secret Shame" reports that progressive cities, on average, have black/white achievement gaps in math and reading that are 15 and 13 percentage points higher than in conservative cities. For example, in San Francisco, 70% of white students are proficient in math; for black students it's 12% &#8212; a 58-point gap. In Washington, D.C., 83% of white students scored proficient in reading compared to 23% of black students &#8212; a 60-point gap.<p>Updated: Wed Mar 25, 2020</p> 9e5eebd933b511bc3367aae8eb792f0a Socialism's Past for 03/18/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/03/20/socialisms-past Wed, 18 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Senator Bernie Sanders' call for socialism has resonated among many Americans, particularly young Americans. They've fallen prey to the idea of a paradise here on Earth where things are free and there's little want. But socialists never reveal what turns out to be their true agenda. Let's look at the kind of statements they used to gain power. You'll note that all of their slogans before gaining power bore little relation to the facts after they had power.</p> <p>Vladimir Lenin promised, "Under socialism all will govern in turn and will soon become accustomed to no one governing." That's Friedrich Engel's prediction about "the withering away of the state." Lenin also promised, "Communism is Soviet power plus electrification," and "No amount of political freedom will satisfy the hungry masses." Lenin's successor, Joseph Stalin, said, "Advance towards socialism cannot but cause the exploiting elements to resist the advance, and the resistance of the exploiters cannot but lead to the inevitable sharpening of the class struggle." He also said, "Gaiety is the most outstanding feature of the Soviet Union," and that "Gratitude is a sickness suffered by dogs." <p>Updated: Wed Mar 18, 2020</p> 6be7a3da6fcad191109285afb0ec3458 Rights Versus Wishes for 03/11/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/03/20/rights-versus-wishes-f18a9 Wed, 11 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0700 <p></p><p>Sen. Bernie Sanders said: "I believe that health care is a right of all people." He's not alone in that contention. That claim comes from Democrats and Republicans and liberals and conservatives. It is not just a health care right that people claim. There are "rights" to decent housing, decent food, a decent job and prescription drugs. In a free and moral society, do people have these rights? Let's begin by asking ourselves: What is a right?</p> <p>In the standard usage of the term, a "right" is something that exists simultaneously among people. In the case of our U.S. Constitutional decree, we have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Our individual right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness imposes no obligation upon another other than the duty of noninterference.<p>Updated: Wed Mar 11, 2020</p> 0d7a0498869a92e05d7264f03f283a0a Another African Tragedy for 03/04/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/03/20/another-african-tragedy Wed, 04 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0800 <p></p><p>Here are a few headlines about an African tragedy: "Africa's Worst Locust Plague in Decades Threatens Millions" (The Wall Street Journal), "'Unprecedented' Locust Invasion Approaches Full-Blown Crisis" (Scientific American), "Somalia Declares Locust Outbreak a 'National Emergency'" (The National) and "UN Calls for International Action on East Africa Locust Outbreak" (Bloomberg Green). This ongoing tragedy is mostly man-made, according to an analysis by Paul Driessen, who is a senior policy adviser with the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT) and the Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise.</p> <p>Driessen says that billions of desert locusts have attacked the eastern Africa nations of Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia. According to the U.N., the locust attack in Kenya is the worst in 70 years and the worst in 25 years for other east African nations. Locusts are destroying crops and threatening tens of millions of Africans with lost livelihoods and starvation. These locust swarms can blanket 460 square miles at a time and consume more than 400 million pounds of vegetation daily. They reproduce fast, too, meaning locust swarms could be 500 times bigger in six months.<p>Updated: Wed Mar 04, 2020</p> 08d86b094053c26371a1edc5f266d5d1 Stop, Question and Frisk for 02/26/2020 https://www.creators.com/read/walter-williams/02/20/stop-question-and-frisk Wed, 26 Feb 2020 00:00:00 -0800 <p>Before former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg threw his hat into the 2020 presidential race, he defended the New York Police Department's use of "stop, question and frisk" policing. At a United States Naval Academy's 2019 Leadership Conference, Bloomberg said, "We focused on keeping kids from going through the correctional system ... kids who walked around looking like they might have a gun, remove the gun from their pockets and stop it." He claimed that as a result of his policy, New York's murder rate fell from 650 a year to 300 the year he left office.</p> <p>In the cases of Terry v. Ohio, Sibron v. New York, and Peters v. New York, the U.S. Supreme Court, in 1968, granted limited approval to officers to stop, question and frisk, even though they lacked probable cause for an arrest, if the officer believed the subject to be dangerous. The Court's decision made suspicion of danger to an officer grounds for a "reasonable search." </p> <p>The stop, question and frisk policy has taken on racial overtones because most of the people stopped are black men. Let's look at the numbers. Last year, NYPD data showed that 93% of suspects arrested for murder were black or Hispanic. Ninety-six percent of those nabbed in shootings were also minorities. Eighty-eight percent of New York City's homicide victims were black or Hispanic as were 96% of shooting victims. While these percentages have been roughly the same for decades, New York police have brought the absolute number of crimes, including homicides, way down from its 1990 peak at 2,245 to 289 homicides in 2018. Since blacks and Hispanics are the major victims of homicide, as a result of the NYPD's proactive response to crime, possibly tens of thousands of blacks are living today who would otherwise be dead.<p>Updated: Wed Feb 26, 2020</p>