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Thomas Sowell
Thomas Sowell
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Minimum Wage Madness: Part II


A survey of American economists found that 90 percent of them regarded minimum wage laws as increasing the rate of unemployment among low-skilled workers. Inexperience is often the problem. Only about 2 percent of Americans over the age of 24 earned the minimum wage.

Advocates of minimum wage laws usually base their support of such laws on their estimate of how much a worker "needs" in order to have "a living wage" — or on some other criterion that pays little or no attention to the worker's skill level, experience or general productivity. So it is hardly surprising that minimum wage laws set wages that price many a young worker out of a job.

What is surprising is that, despite an accumulation of evidence over the years of the devastating effects of minimum wage laws on black teenage unemployment rates, members of the Congressional Black Caucus continue to vote for such laws.

Once, years ago, during a confidential discussion with a member of the Congressional Black Caucus, I asked how they could possibly vote for minimum wage laws.

The answer I got was that members of the Black Caucus were part of a political coalition and, as such, they were expected to vote for things that other members of that coalition wanted, such as minimum wage laws, in order that other members of the coalition would vote for things that the Black Caucus wanted.

When I asked what could the black members of Congress possibly get in return for supporting minimum wage laws that would be worth sacrificing whole generations of young blacks to huge rates of unemployment, the discussion quickly ended. I may have been vehement when I asked that question.

The same question could be asked of black public officials in general, including Barack Obama, who have taken the side of the teachers' unions, who oppose vouchers or charter schools that allow black parents (among others) to take their children out of failing public schools.

Minimum wage laws can even affect the level of racial discrimination. In an earlier era, when racial discrimination was both legally and socially accepted, minimum wage laws were often used openly to price minorities out of the job market.

In 1925, a minimum wage law was passed in the Canadian province of British Columbia, with the intent and effect of pricing Japanese immigrants out of jobs in the lumbering industry.

A well regarded Harvard professor of that era referred approvingly to Australia's minimum wage law as a means to "protect the white Australian's standard of living from the invidious competition of the colored races, particularly of the Chinese" who were willing to work for less.

In South Africa during the era of apartheid, white labor unions urged that a minimum wage law be applied to all races, to keep black workers from taking jobs away from white unionized workers by working for less than the union pay scale.

Some supporters of the first federal minimum wage law in the United States — the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931 — used exactly the same rationale, citing the fact that Southern construction companies, using non-union black workers, were able to come north and under-bid construction companies using unionized white labor.

These supporters of minimum wage laws understood long ago something that today's supporters of such laws seem not to have bothered to think through.

People whose wages are raised by law do not necessarily benefit, because they are often less likely to be hired at the imposed minimum wage rate.

Labor unions have been supporters of minimum wage laws in countries around the world, since these laws price non-union workers out of jobs, leaving more jobs for union members.

People who are content to advocate policies that sound good, whether for political reasons or just to feel good about themselves, often do not bother to think through the consequences beforehand or to check the results afterwards.

If they thought things through, how could they have imagined that having large numbers of idle teenage boys hanging out on the streets together would be good for any community — especially in places where most of these youngsters were raised by single mothers, another unintended consequence, in this case, of well-meaning welfare policies?

Thomas Sowell is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. His website is To find out more about Thomas Sowell and read features by other Creators Syndicate columnists and cartoonists, visit the Creators Syndicate Web page at



2 Comments | Post Comment
Regarding the argument to increase minimum wage, you mentioned decreasing employment opportunities that come with an increase of minimum wage but failed to mention the increased costs of pretty much everything sold or rented. i am a US citizen living and working in Australia, to live in a one bedroom apartment in the suburbs of Perth (20 to 40 minutes from the central business district) will cost you between 1200 and 1600 a month, a can of Coke at a service station here is around 3.00, a small bottle of water is around 4.00, a meal at the average McDonalds or KFC here will cost anywhere from 10.00 to 14.00, that is one meal for a single individual with a drink included. I won't even discuss what my average monthly grocery bill is for one person. Did I mention minimum wage is around 15.00 an hour. You can make all of the arguments you want for raising minimum wage, but in doing so not only do you decrease employment opportunities for the poor but you increase the cost of living for them.
Comment: #1
Posted by: Keri Manuel
Tue Sep 17, 2013 12:18 AM
Hello Thomas Sowell,

Regarding the columns of 9/17 and 18/2013 here is something I wrote to a liberal acquaintance:

"Part of the reason why some people need help is because they have been hurt by government programs that are supposedly there to help them. Just two examples.

"Minimum wage. This is pushed as a way to make sure people earn a "living wage." But the reality is that if I am an employer and the minimum wage is say $8 per hour, am I going to hire an unskilled, uneducated and inexperienced applicant who I expect can only contribute to my business to the tune of $5 an hour for $8 an hour, or a skilled, educated, experienced applicant who will be fully worth the $15 an hour I need to offer to hire him? Without the minimum wage many people who are now unemployed could get entry level jobs and work their way up. As it is entry level jobs for the unskilled, uneducated and inexperienced are virtually non-existent - unless, of course, you are an illegal immigrant.

"Housing and building regulations. If I am one of these people who can't find a job because of the minimum wage or I am an illegal immigrant working below minimum wage, what would be better for me in terms of housing - living in a house or apartment that does not meet housing regulations, or being homeless. There are plenty of people out there who would be happy to provide housing for the poor at a price the poor could afford if it were not for housing regulations. Because of housing regulations, such housing is not available.

"These are just two examples. I could sum it up this way. It has effectively become illegal to be poor in this country or to provide goods and services to the poor at a price and quality that they can afford. Instead we have all sorts of laws and regulations that that not only do not help the poor, they instead make the poor even more miserable than they would be otherwise."

Matt Grinberg
Comment: #2
Posted by: Matt Grinberg
Mon Sep 23, 2013 8:22 AM
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